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Grammar in Use is the world's best-selling grammar series for learners of English. Advanced Grammar in Use with Answers, authored by Martin Hewings, is the first choice for advanced (C1-C2) learners of English. It is a self-study book with clear explanations and practice exercises, and has helped millions of learners improve their English communication skills. It is also trusted by teachers and can be used as a supplementary text in classrooms, or to support preparation for Cambridge Advanced, Proficiency and IELTS examinations.

[nb: This is the CD-ROM edition, but has no CD ROM.]

سال:
2013
Edition:
3
ناشر کتب:
Cambridge University Press
زبان:
english
صفحات:
306
ISBN 13:
9781107697386
سیریز:
A self-study reference and practice book for advanced learners of english
فائل:
PDF, 11.81 MB

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6 comments
 
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آپ کتاب کا معائنہ کر سکتے ہیں اور اپنے تجربات شیئر کرسکتے ہیں۔ دوسرے قارئین کتابوں کے بارے میں آپ کی رائے میں ہمیشہ دلچسپی رکھیں گے۔ چاہے آپ کو کتاب پسند ہے یا نہیں ، اگر آپ اپنے دیانتدار اور تفصیلی خیالات دیںگے تو لوگوں کو نئی کتابیں ملیںگی جو ان کے لئے صحیح ہیں۔
Advanced
Grammar
in Use
A self-study reference and practice book
for advanced learners of English

Third Edition
with answers and CD-ROM

Martin Hewings

CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY PRESS

Cambridge, New York, Melbourne, Madrid, Cape Town,
Singapore, São Paulo, Delhi, Mexico City
Cambridge University Press
The Edinburgh Building, Cambridge CB2 8RU, UK
www.cambridge.org
Information on this title: www.cambridge.org/9781107699892
Third edition © Cambridge University Press, 1999, 2013
This publication is in copyright. Subject to statutory exception
and to the provisions of relevant collective licensing agreements,
no reproduction of any part may take place without the written
permission of Cambridge University Press.
First published 1999
Second edition 2005
Third edition first published 2013
Printed in Italy by L.E.G.O. S.p.A.
A catalogue record for this publication is available from the British Library
ISBN 978-1-107-69989-2 Paperback with answers and CD-ROM for Windows XP, Vista or 7
and Mac OSX 10.6, 10.7
ISBN 978-1-107-69738-6 Paperback with answers
ISBN 978-1-107-61378-2 Paperback without answers
Cambridge University Press has no responsibility for the persistence or
accuracy of URLs for external or third-party internet websites referred to in
this publication, and does not guarantee that any content on such websites is,
or will remain, accurate or appropriate. Information regarding prices, travel
timetables and other factual information given in this work is correct at
the time of first printing but Cambridge University Press does not guarantee
the accuracy of such information thereafter.

Contents
Thanks vii
To the student
To the teacher

viii
ix

Tenses
1 Present continuous and present simple 1
2 Present continuous and present simple 2
3 Past simple and present perfect
4 Past continuous and past simple
5 Past perfect and past simple
6 Present perfect continuous and present perfect
7 Past perfect continuous, past perfect and past continuous
8 Present and past time: review
The future
9 Will and be going to
1; 0 Present simple and present continuous for the future
11 Future continuous and future perfect (continuous)
12 Be to + infinitive; be about to + infinitive
13 Other ways of talking about the future
14 The future seen from the past
Modals and semi-modals
15 Can, could, be able to and be allowed to
16 Will, would and used to
17 May and might
18 Must and have (got) to
19 Need(n’t), don’t need to and don’t have to
20 Should, ought to and had better
Linking verbs, passives, questions
21 Linking verbs: be, appear, seem; become, get, etc.
22 Forming passive sentences 1
23 Forming passive sentences 2: verb + -ing or to-infinitive
24 Using passives
25 Reporting with passives; It is said that ...
26 Wh-questions with who, whom, which, how and whose
27 Negative questions; echo questions; questions with that-clauses
Verb complementation: what follows verbs
28 Verbs, objects and complements
29 Verb + two objects
30 Verb + -ing forms and infinitives 1
31 Verb + -ing forms and infinitives 2

If you are not sure which units you need to study, use the Study planner on page 210.

iii

Reporting
32 Reporting people’s words and thoughts
33 Reporting statements: that-clauses
34 Verb + wh-clause
35 Tense choice in reporting
36 Reporting offers, suggestions, orders, intentions, etc.
37 Modal verbs in reporting
38 Reporting what people say using nouns and adjectives
39 Should in that-clauses; the present subjunctive
Nouns
40 Agreement between subject and verb 1
41 Agreement between subject and verb 2
42 Agreement between subject and verb 3
43 Compound nouns and noun phrases
Articles, determiners and quantifiers
44 A / an and one
45 A / an, the and zero article 1
46 A / an, the and zero article 2
47 A / an, the and zero article 3
48 Some and any
49 No, none (of) and not any
50 Much (of), many (of), a lot of, lots (of), etc.
51 All (of), whole, every, each
52 Few, little, less, fewer
Relative clauses and other types of clause
53 Relative pronouns
54 Other relative words: whose, when, whereby, etc.
55 Prepositions in relative clauses
56 Other ways of adding information to noun phrases 1: additional noun phrases, etc.
57 Other ways of adding information to noun phrases 2: prepositional phrases, etc.
58 Participle clauses with adverbial meaning 1
59 Participle clauses with adverbial meaning 2
Pronouns, substitution and leaving out words
60 Reflexive pronouns: herself, himself, themselves, etc.
61 One and ones
62 So and not as substitutes for clauses, etc.
63 Do so; such
64 More on leaving out words after auxiliary verbs
65 Leaving out to-infinitives

iv

If you are not sure which units you need to study, use the Study planner on page 210.

Adjectives and adverbs
66 Position of adjectives
67 Gradable and non-gradable adjectives 1
68 Gradable and non-gradable adjectives 2
69 Participle adjectives and compound adjectives
70 Adjectives + to-infinitive, -ing, that-clause, wh-clause
71 Adjectives and adverbs
72 Adjectives and adverbs: comparative and superlative forms
73 Comparative phrases and clauses
74 Position of adverbs 1
75 Position of adverbs 2
76 Adverbs of place, direction, indefinite frequency, and time
77 Degree adverbs and focus adverbs
78 Comment adverbs and viewpoint adverbs
Adverbial clauses and conjunctions
79 Adverbial clauses of time
80 Giving reasons: as, because, etc.; for and with
81 Purposes and results: in order to, so as to, etc.
82 Contrasts: although and though; even though / if; while, whilst and whereas
83 If 1
84 If 2
85 If I were you ...; imagine he were to win
86 If ... not and unless; if and whether; etc.
87 Connecting ideas in a sentence and between sentences
Prepositions
88 Prepositions of position and movement
89 Between and among
90 Prepositions of time
91 Talking about exceptions
92 Prepositions after verbs
93 Prepositions after nouns
94 Two- and three-word verbs: word order
Organising information
95 There is, there was, etc.
96 It 1
97 It 2
98 Focusing: it-clauses and what-clauses
99 Inversion 1
100 Inversion 2

If you are not sure which units you need to study, use the Study planner on page 210.

v

Appendix 1 Irregular verbs 202
Appendix 2 Passive verb forms 204
Glossary

205

Study planner

210

Grammar reminder

222

Additional exercises

240

Key to Exercises 251
Key to Study planner 277
Key to Additional exercises 278
Index of grammatical items
Index of lexical items 287

vi

281

If you are not sure which units you need to study, use the Study planner on page 210.

Thanks
I would like to thank all those who worked with me on the first two editions of Advanced Grammar in
Use, in particular Jeanne McCarten and Alison Sharpe for their encouragement. Thanks also to my former
colleagues and students in the English for International Students Unit at the University of Birmingham for
their help and interest.
For this third edition I am grateful to Colin McIntosh, Nora McDonald, Annabel Marriott, Sabina Sahni,
Kevin Doherty, Andy George, Claire Cole and Janet Weller. Claire and Janet in particular have given me
tremendous support in preparing the book and the accompanying CDROM.
Thanks to Sophie Joyce, Sandy Nichols, Katie Mac, Ian Mitchell and David Whamond for the illustrations
and to Kamae Design for their work on the finished product. I would also like to thank Cambridge University
Press for allowing me access to the Cambridge International Corpus.
Many students and teachers sent me comments on the 2nd edition, and these have been very helpful in
writing this new edition. Thank you all for taking the trouble to contact me.
Finally, my thanks, as ever, to Suzanne, David and Ann.

The authors and publishers acknowledge the following sources of photographs and are grateful for the
permissions granted.
p. 6: WithGod/Shutterstock; p. 11: Comstock Images/Thinkstock; p. 17: Thinkstock; p. 33: Image Source/
Glowimages; p. 39: Thinkstock; p. 109: Thinkstock; p. 114: Bildagentur RM/Glowimages.

vii

To the student
Who the book is for
Advanced Grammar in Use is for advanced students of English. It was written mainly as a self-study
book, but might also be used in class with a teacher.
How the book is organised
There are 100 units in the book, each looking at a particular area of grammar. Some sections within
each unit focus on the particular use of a grammatical pattern, such as will be + -ing (as in will be
travelling); others explore grammatical contrasts, such as whether to use would or used to in reporting
past events, or when we use except or except for. The 100 units are grouped under a number of
headings such as Tenses and The future, and you can find details of this in the Contents. Each unit
consists of two pages. On the left-hand page are explanations and examples; on the right-hand page
are practice exercises. The letters next to each exercise show you which section(s) of the left-hand
page you need to understand to do that exercise.
At the back of the book you will find a number of further sections.
Appendices (pages 202 and 204) Two appendices provide further information about irregular
verbs and passive verb forms.
Glossary (page 205) Although terms to describe grammar have been kept to a minimum, some
have been included, and you can find explanations of these terms in the Glossary.
Study planner (page 210) You can use the Study planner to help you decide which units you should
study, or which parts of the Grammar reminder you should read first.
Grammar reminder (page 222) This presents examples and explanations of areas of grammar that
you are likely to have studied already at earlier stages of learning English. References on the lefthand page of each unit point you to the sections of the Grammar reminder relevant to that unit.
Read these sections to refresh your understanding before you start work on the more advanced
grammar points in the unit.
Additional exercises (page 240) If you want further practice of grammar points, follow the
references at the bottom of the right-hand page of a unit. These will tell you which of the
Additional exercises to do next.
Keys (pages 251, 277 and 278) You can check your answers to the practice exercises, Study planner
and Additional exercises in the keys. You will also find comments on some of the answers.
Indexes (pages 281 and 287) Use the Indexes to help you find the grammar or vocabulary you need.
How to use the book
It is not necessary to work through the units in order. If you know which grammar points you have
difficulty with, go straight to the units that deal with them, using the Contents or Indexes to help you
find the relevant unit. When you have found a unit to study, read through any related material in the
Grammar reminder before you begin.
You can use the units in a number of ways. You might study the explanations and examples first, do
the exercises on the opposite page, check your answers in the Key to Exercises, and then look again at
the explanations if you made any mistakes. If you just want to practise an area of grammar you think
you already know, you could do the exercises first and then study the explanations for any you got
wrong. You might of course simply use the book as a reference book without doing the exercises.
Corpus information
A corpus is a large collection of texts stored on a computer. In writing Advanced Grammar in Use
we have worked with the Cambridge International Corpus (CIC), a multi-million word collection of
real speech and writing, and the Cambridge Learner Corpus, a collection of exam answers written by
students. From these corpora we can learn more about language in use, and about the common errors
made by learners. Using this information, we can be sure that the grammar explanations and examples
in the book reflect real language, and we can focus on problem areas for learners. We have also used the
CIC to produce word boxes, listing the most common words found in particular grammar patterns.

viii

To the teacher
Advanced Grammar in Use was written as a self-study grammar book but teachers might also find
it useful for supplementing or supporting their classroom teaching. The book will probably be most
useful for advanced level students for reference and practice.
No attempt has been made to order the units according to level of difficulty. Instead, you should
select units as they are relevant to the syllabus that you are following with your students, or as
particular difficulties arise, rather than working through from beginning to end. Alternatively, you
could ask students to do the multiple-choice test in the Study planner (page 210) and focus on units
that deal with areas of grammar where students are least successful.
Don’t forget to point students to the Grammar reminder (page 222). This is a reference-only section
which presents basic knowledge on a number of areas of grammar. It will be useful for students to
read through a section before moving on to the more advanced material in the units. At the beginning
of each section of the Grammar reminder you will find information about the unit(s) it relates to.
There are many ways in which you can use the book with a class. You might, for example, present
the explanations on the left-hand page of a unit, and use the exercises for classroom practice.
Alternatively, you might want to begin with the exercises and refer to the left-hand page only when
students are having problems. You could also set particular units or groups of units (such as those on
Articles or Nouns) for self-study if individual students are having difficulties. Another possibility might
be to develop your own classroom-based activities around the explanations on the left-hand page of
a unit, and then set the exercises as consolidation material for self-study. When students need further
practice of grammar points from a number of different units, refer them to the Additional exercises
(page 240). References at the bottom of the right-hand pages show where the relevant Additional
exercises can be found.
An edition of Advanced Grammar in Use without the answers is also available, and some teachers
might prefer to use it with their students.
The third edition of Advanced Grammar in Use has the same comprehensive grammar coverage as
previous editions, but many of its exercises have been revised and its layout made more user-friendly.

ix

Advanced
Grammar
in Use

Unit

1

Present continuous and present simple 1
A

State verbs

Reminder ➜ A1–A5

We can use the present continuous with some state verbs (e.g. attract, like, look, love, sound) to
emphasise that a situation is temporary or for a period of time around the present. Compare:
Ella stays with us quite often. The children love having her here. and
Ella’s with us at the moment. The children are loving having her here.
State verbs which we rarely use with the present continuous include believe, consist of, doubt, own.

B

Some verbs have different meanings when they are used to talk about states and when they describe
actions. With their ‘state’ meanings, they usually take simple rather than continuous forms. With their
‘action’ meanings, they may take simple or continuous forms, depending on context. Compare:
The app doesn’t appear to work on my phone. (appear: state = seem) and
Carley Robb is currently appearing in a musical
Also: cost, expect, feel, fit, have,
on Broadway. / She often appears in musicals.
imagine, measure, think, weigh
(appear: action = take part)

C

Mental state verbs
With some verbs describing mental states (e.g. find, realise, regret, think, understand) we can use
the present continuous to emphasise that we have recently started to think about something or that
we are not sure about something. Compare:
I regret that the company will have to be sold. (= I’ve made the decision and I’m sorry about
it) and
I’m regretting my decision to give her the job. (= I’m increasingly aware that it was the wrong
decision)
When it means ‘think carefully about’, consider is only used with the present continuous:
He’s considering taking early retirement. (not He considers taking early retirement.)
Some other verbs describing preferences and mental states (e.g. agree, believe, conclude, know,
prefer) are rarely used with the present continuous:
I believe you now. (not I’m believing you now.)

D

Performatives
We use the present simple with verbs which perform the action they describe (= performatives):
I suggest you park outside the city and
Also: acknowledge, admit, advise, apologise,
get the bus to the centre.
beg, confess, congratulate, declare, deny,
We request that you read the terms
forbid, guarantee, name, order, permit, predict,
and conditions carefully before signing.
promise, refuse, remind, request, thank, warn
Some verbs used as performatives with the present simple in affirmative (= positive) sentences
(apologise, deny, guarantee, promise, suggest) have a similar meaning with either the present
simple or the present continuous in negative sentences:
I don’t deny / I’m not denying taking the books, but Miguel said it would be okay.
Modals are often used with performatives to make what we say more tentative or polite:
We would advise you to arrive two hours before the flight leaves.
I must beg you to keep this a secret.

2

Unit

Exercises

1

Complete each pair of sentences using the same verb (in a question form or negative if
necessary) from the box. Use the present continuous; if this is not possible, use the present
simple. Use to add any words outside the gap and use contracted forms where appropriate.
A&B

1.1

attract
consist of
have
like
look

doubt
feel
fit
measure
sound

’s
does
1 a I hear you’re having your house repainted. How it looking ? (or How it look ?)
does
b I bought this new dress today. How it look ?
2 a A: What are you doing with that ruler? B: I
the area of the kitchen.
b The garden
12 by 20 metres.
3 a I
whether I’ll get another chance to retake the exam.
b I suppose she might be at home tonight, but I
it.
4 a The new science museum currently
10,000 visitors a month.
b Flowers
bees with their brightly-coloured petals.
5 a Carlos won’t work at the top of the 20-storey building because he
heights.
b A: How’s the new job? B: Well, at the moment, I
it at all.
6 a My car’s in the garage today. They
new brakes.
b I bought this jumper for Anna, but it
her so I’ll have to take it back.
7 a What’s your shirt made from? It
like silk.
b I won’t be coming to work today. I
very well.
8 a The roof of the house
only plastic sheets nailed down in a few places.
b Their school uniform
black trousers and a dark green jumper.
9 a Simon’s new song
quite good, but he doesn’t think he’s ready yet to perform
it in public.
b A: What’s that noise? B: It
like a bird stuck in the chimney.
10 a Poulson
treatment for a knee injury, but should be fit to play on Saturday.
b My sister
long blonde hair. You’re bound to recognise her.
1.2

Cross out any improbable answers. C & D

Dear Aunt Mara,
Thanks for your message. I (1) apologise / ’m apologising for not getting back to you sooner, but I’ve
been incredibly busy. When I went into nursing, you warned me that it would be really hard work, but
I (2) admit / ’m admitting that I didn’t really believe you. Don’t get me wrong – I (3) don’t suggest
/ ’m not suggesting that I’m not enjoying it. It’s incredibly rewarding, but I (4) now realise / ’m now
realising how hard the job is. When I get home I just eat (not very well, I (5) confess / ’m confessing)
and go straight to bed. It doesn’t help that the bus journey to the hospital is so slow. I (6) consider / ’m
considering buying a car, which will make things easier, I hope.
And what about you? How (7) GR\RX¿QG / DUH\RX¿QGLQJ living in a village after so many years in
the city? I (8) know / ’m knowingKRZGLI¿FXOWLWLVIRU\RXWRWUDYHOVXFKDORQJZD\EXWLWZRXOGEH
ORYHO\LI\RXFRXOGFRPHDQGVWD\ZLWKPHIRUDZHHNHQG,¶YHJRWSOHQW\RIURRPLQP\ÀDW,  don’t
guarantee / ’m not guaranteeing to cook as well as you do, but I (10) promise / ’m promisingWR¿QG
time to show you around this lovely old town.
Hope to see you soon. Keep in touch.
Love,
Martina

➜ Additional exercise 1 (page 240)

3

Unit

2

Present continuous and present simple 2
A

We often use the present simple and present continuous in stories and jokes
Reminder ➜ A1–A5
in informal spoken English to create the impression that events are happening
now. This can make them more direct and exciting and hold people’s attention:
She goes up to this man and looks straight into his eyes. He’s not wearing his glasses, and he
doesn’t recognise her …
This man’s playing golf when a kangaroo bounds up to him,
grabs his club and hits his ball about half a mile …
The main events are usually described in sequence using the
present simple and longer background events are described
using the present continuous.
In narratives and anecdotes the present simple can be used
to highlight an event. Often it is used after past tenses and
with a phrase such as suddenly or all of a sudden:
I was sitting in the park, reading a newspaper, when all of a sudden this dog jumps at me.

B

We also use the present simple and present continuous in live commentaries (for example, on sports
events) when the report takes place at the same time as the action:
King serves to the left-hand court and Adams makes a wonderful return. She’s playing
magnificent tennis in this match ...

C

We can use the present simple in phrases such as It says here, I hear, I gather, I see, I understand
and They say, (Someone) says, (Someone) tells me to introduce news that we have heard, read,
seen (e.g. on television), or been told. We can also use past tenses (e.g. It said here, I heard):
I gather you’re worried about Pedro.
Sophia tells me you’re thinking of emigrating.
Professor Hendriks is at the conference and I hear she’s an excellent speaker.

D

The present simple is often used in news headlines to talk about events that have recently happened:

SECOND QUAKE HITS JAPAN

FIRE BREAKS OUT IN HOTEL ROOM

SCIENTISTS FIND ICE ON THE MOON

FOREIGN MINISTER RESIGNS

We can use the present simple to refer to the contents of books, films, newspapers, etc:
Thompson gives a list of the largest European companies in Chapter 6.
At the beginning of the book, three men find $4 million in a crashed plane.
In the film, Loni Baranski takes the role of a private detective.

E

We can use the present continuous with adverbs such as always, constantly, continually or forever
to emphasise that something is done so often that it is characteristic of a person, group or thing:
A: I think I’ll stay here after all. B: You’re constantly changing your mind.
Jacob is a really kind person. He’s always offering to help me with my work.
We often use this pattern to indicate disapproval. The past continuous is used in a similar way with
these adverbs (e.g. Was Olivia always asking you for money, too?).
We can use the present continuous to describe something we regularly do at a certain time:
At eight o’clock I’m usually driving to work, so phone me on my mobile.
Seven o’clock is a bit early. We’re generally eating then.

4

Unit

Exercises

2

2.1

Complete these sentences using the verbs in brackets. Use the present simple or present
continuous. A & B
1 Rodriguez passes to Messi who
just over the bar. Barcelona
much more in this half … (pass – shoot – attack)
2 A man
home late one night after the office Christmas party. His wife
for him, and she
to him … (arrive – wait – say)
3 I went to a concert yesterday in the Town Hall. In the middle of it, while the orchestra
this man suddenly
on his seat and
to
conduct them. (play – stand – start)

2.2

Complete what each person says about the news they have read or heard using the present
tense phrases in C. C
I see the government’s giving the health
1
Government gives health service billions
service a lot more money.
2

Vegecorp to sack 1,000 workers.

Vegecorp are going to

3
President Cartman announced a new
public holiday on his birthday, August
6th. He made the announcement …

4

Did you hear that Bruno’s
crashed his car again?

we’re going to have

Bruno’s

Ed
5

I’ve got a new job.

she’s

Julia
6

2.3

A team of researchers claims
to have identified a gene which
causes some people to overeat.

Expand one of the sets of notes below to complete each dialogue. E
continually / change / mind
constantly / criticise / driving
1
2
3
4
5

2.4

they’ve identified

forever / moan / work
forever / ask me / money
always / complain / handwriting

A: I can’t read this. B: You’re always complaining about my handwriting.
A: Can I borrow €10? B: You’re
A: That was a dangerous thing to do. B: You’re
A: I think I’ll stay here after all. B: You’re
A: I had a bad day at the office again. B: You’re

.
.
.
.

Complete each pair of sentences using the same verb (in negative form if necessary). Use the
present continuous or the present simple. Use to add any words outside the gap. D & E
1 a
b
2 a
b
3 a
b

A: Shall I phone at six? B: No, we usually
dinner at that time.
I
lamb, thanks. I’m a vegetarian.
Gielman
Henry V in the latest production at the Royal Theatre.
They constantly
loud music until the early hours of the morning.
I normally
the children to school at 8:30. Perhaps we could meet at 9:00.
In his 2007 book, Wall
a controversial view of Britain’s role in the war.

➜ Additional exercise 1 (page 240)

5

Unit

3

Past simple and present perfect
A

Time expressions that refer to the present, such as this morning / week /
Reminder ➜ A6–A12
month and today, can be used with either past simple or present perfect verbs.
If we think of this morning (etc.) as a past, completed time period, then we use the past simple; if
we think of this morning (etc.) as a time period which includes the present moment, then we use the
present perfect. Compare:
I didn’t shave this morning. (= the morning is over and I didn’t shave) and
I haven’t shaved this morning. (= it is still the morning and I might shave later)

B

In a sentence which includes a time clause with since, we generally prefer a past simple verb in the
time clause and a present perfect verb in the main clause. The time clause refers to a particular point
in the past:
Since Mr Dodson became president unemployment has increased. (rather than … has
become …)
She hasn’t been able to play tennis since she broke her arm. (rather than … has broken …)
Note, however, that we use the present perfect in the time clause if the two situations described in the
main clause and time clause extend until the present:
Have you met any of your neighbours since you’ve lived here? (not … you lived …)

C

With time clauses introduced by after, when, until, as soon as, once, by the time and the time
expressions the minute / second / moment the past simple refers to past, completed events and the
present perfect refers to future events. Compare these examples:
After she left hospital (past), she had a long holiday. and
After Lucas has left school (future), he will be spending six months in India.
The minute I got the news about Anna (past) I telephoned my parents. and
I’ll contact you the minute I’ve got my exam results. (future)
In the time clause in sentences like this it is possible to use the past perfect instead of the past simple
(e.g. After she had left …) and the present simple instead of the present perfect (e.g. After Lucas
leaves …) with the same meaning (see also Unit 5).

D

In news reports, you will often read about or hear recent events introduced with the present perfect,
and then the past simple or other past tenses are used to give details:
A Russian spacecraft has returned safely to Earth with its two
passengers. US astronaut Scott Keane and Russian cosmonaut
Olga Kaleri landed in the early hours of Wednesday.
An American woman has become the first person
to make 2 million contributions to Wikipedia.
Esther Miller began editing the site eight years ago.

E

After the pattern It / This / That is / will be the first time … we generally use the present perfect in
the next clause:
That’s the first time I’ve seen Jan look embarrassed. (reporting a past event)
It won’t be the first time she has voted against the government. (talking about a future event)
Note that after It / This / That was the first time … we generally use the past perfect (see Unit 5):
It was the first time I’d talked to Dimitra outside the office.

6

Unit

Exercises
3.1

3

Complete each sentence with a verb from the box. Use the present perfect or past simple, with
a negative form where necessary. A
have

go

oversleep

read

spend

wear

1 A: Shall I make us some dinner? It’s already eight o’clock.
B: No, thanks. I
to the dentist this afternoon and my mouth hurts too much to eat
anything.
2 I
three lectures today and I still have two more later this afternoon.
3 It was so hot today that I
shorts and a T-shirt at work.
4 We
£200 on food this month and there’s another week to go before I get paid.
5 A: Do you want a lift home?
B: No, I
this morning because my alarm clock didn’t go off, so I need to work late.
6 I
much of the report yet, but I have to finish it by the weekend.
3.2

Complete the sentences with the pairs of verbs from the box. Choose the most appropriate
tense — present perfect or past simple. B
be able – feel
not want – fall
1
2
3
4
5
6

3.3

Maria
Since she
Since he
A lot
Since I
Stefan’s reading

happen – speak
improve – be
rescue – be
work – not have
to go swimming since she
in the river.
at the company she
a day off through illness.
the girl from a house fire, he
on TV almost every day.
since I last
to you.
to drive I
much more independent
enormously since he
at school.

One sentence in each pair is wrong. Correct it by replacing the past simple with the present
perfect of the italicised verb. C
1 a Remember that after you signed the contract you won’t be able to change your mind.
b Carlo’s injury only became apparent after he signed to play for Real Madrid.
2 a As soon as I finished college I want to travel around Australia.
b I didn’t have time to check the essay. I handed it in as soon as I finished it.
3 a By the time Sarah got to work the meeting had finished.
b I’ll probably have finished breakfast by the time the children got up.
4 a I recognised her the moment I heard her laugh.
b I’ll tell you what time we’re coming the moment I heard from Emil.

3.4

Here are some extracts from a television news report. Choose the more appropriate tense –
present perfect or past simple – for the verbs in brackets. D & E
1 When President Nelson arrives (arrive) in Paris this evening, it will be the first time she
(visit) Europe since her election victory in May.
2 The Victoria Hospital in Milltown
(close) to new patients after more cases of
food poisoning. Three elderly patients
(die) last week in the outbreak.
3 The rate of inflation
(drop) to 4.8%. It’s the first time in nearly two years that
the rate
(fall) below 5%.
4 Nearly 600 laptops
(steal) from Ministry of Defence staff over the past five
years. However, a spokesperson
(insist) that there had been no security
problems as none of the computers
(hold) secret information.

➜ Additional exercise 2 (page 241)

7

Unit

4

Past continuous and past simple
A

When we talk about two events or activities that went on over the same
Reminder ➜ A6–A8, A13
period of past time, we can often use the past continuous or the past simple
for both:
was reading / read
Mia was reading to the children while
Ben was washing up. (or … read … washed up.)
past
Using the past continuous emphasises that the event or
activity (‘was reading’) was in progress during the past
was washing up / washed up
period of time (‘while Ben was washing up’). Compare:
When I was learning / learned to drive I was living
with my parents.
Was learning emphasises that the activity was in progress (‘I had lessons during this time’) and
learned emphasises completion (‘I passed my test during this time’).

now

When we talk about two or more past completed events that followed one another, we use the past
simple, not the past continuous, for both (see also Unit 5C):
She got up when the alarm clock went off.

B

We usually use the past simple rather than the past continuous to talk about repeated past actions:
We went to Spain three times last year.
Did you drive past her house every day?
However, we can use the past continuous, particularly in spoken English, when we want to emphasise
that repeated actions went on for a limited and temporary period of past time:
When Kata was in hospital, we were visiting her twice a day. (or … we visited …)
To lose weight before the race, I wasn’t eating any biscuits for weeks. (or … I didn’t eat …)
or to talk about something that happened surprisingly often:
Last week I was having to bring work home every night to get it all done. (or … had …)
When the builders were here I was making them cups of tea all the time. (or … made …)

C

We often use the past simple in a narrative (e.g. a report or a story) to talk about a single complete
past event and the past continuous to describe the situation that existed at the time. The event might
have interrupted the situation, or happened while the situation was in progress:
Erika dropped her bag while she was getting into her car.
She was shaking with anger as she left the hotel.

D

We can use either the past continuous or past simple (or past perfect; see Unit 5E) with some verbs to
talk about things we intended to do but didn’t:
We were meaning to call in and see you, but Marc wasn’t feeling well. (or We meant …)
Also: consider + -ing, expect to, hope to, intend to, plan to / on + -ing, think about / of + -ing, want to

These verbs (with the exception of mean and expect) and wonder about can also be used with the
present and past continuous to report what we might do in the future. The past continuous is less
definite than the present continuous:
I was thinking of going to China next year, but it depends how much money I’ve got. (less
definite than I’m thinking of going …)
We were wondering about inviting Eva over tomorrow. (less definite than We’re wondering
about …)

8

Unit

Exercises
4.1

4

Complete the sentences using these pairs of verbs. Use the past simple in one gap and the past
continuous in the other. A–D
come – show
get – go
look – see
play – break

hope – give
live – spend
start – check in

1 Just as I was getting into the bath all the lights went off.
2 I
to go away this weekend, but my boss
me some work that I
have to finish by Monday.
3 When I
in Paris, I
three hours a day travelling to and from
work.
4 A friendly American couple
chatting to him as he
at the hotel
reception.
5 I bumped into Lena last week. She
a lot better than when I last
her.
6 My boss
into the office just as
I
everyone my holiday photos.
7 I
badminton four times a week
before I
my ankle.

This time, use the same tense, either past simple or past continuous, in both spaces.
add – taste

go off – light

not listen – explain

push – run

not watch – dream

8 The smoke alarm
when he
a candle underneath it.
9 I can’t remember how to answer this question. I must confess that I
while the
teacher
it to us.
10 She
more salt to the soup, and then it
much better.
11 Although the television was on, I
it. Instead I
about my
holidays.
12 She
open the door and
into the room.
4.2

Look again at numbers 1, 4, 7 and 11 in 4.1. Which of these sentences could have both verbs in
the past simple? What difference in meaning, if any, would there be?

4.3

Complete this email with either the past simple or the past continuous form of the verbs in
brackets. Where alternatives are possible, think about any difference in meaning. A–C

I (1)

(buy) a new alarm clock the other day in Taylor’s the jewellers, when I

actually (2)

(see VRPHERG\VKRSOLIWLQJ,¶GMXVW¿QLVKHGSD\LQJIRUP\FORFN

and as I (3)

(turn) round, an elderly woman (4)

silver plate into a bag that she (5)
over to another part of the shop and (7)
a number of times. When she (8)

(think WKDWQRERG\  

(look),
(have) a chance to

(notice) that I (13)

(watch)

(hurry RXW8QIRUWXQDWHO\IRUKHUWZRSROLFHRI¿FHUV

her and (14)
(15)

(walk)

(pick up) an expensive-looking watch

(drop) it into the bag. Before I (11)

she (10)

tell the staff in the shop, she (12)

(slowly put) a

(carry). Then she (6)

(walk) past just at that moment and she (16)

(run) straight

into them.

➜ Additional exercise 1 (page 240)

9

Unit

5

Past perfect and past simple
A

When we give an account of a sequence of past events we usually
Reminder ➜ A6–A8, A14–A15
put these events in chronological order using the past simple. If we
want to refer to an event out of order – that is, an event which happened before the last event in the
sequence we have written or spoken about – we can use the past perfect. Study the use of the past
perfect and past simple in the text on the right:
Order of events:

1 gave present 2 wrote email
3 made mistake 4 realised mistake

Order events
are mentioned:

1 wrote email 2 had given present
(out of order) 3 realised mistake
4 had made mistake (out of order)

B

When we understand that we are talking about events before another
past event, we don’t have to continue using the past perfect:
We bought a new car last month. We’d driven my parents’ old car for ages, but it started
(or had started) to fall apart. We put (or had put) a new engine in it, but that didn’t solve
(or hadn’t solved) the problems we were having.

C

If the order of past events is clear from the context (for example, if time expressions make the order
clear) we can often use either the past perfect or the past simple:
After Ivan had finished reading, he put out the light. (or … Ivan finished …)
The two leaders agreed to meet, even though earlier talks had failed to reach an agreement.
(or … talks failed …)

D

The past perfect is often used in reporting what was originally said or thought in the present perfect or
past simple (see also Unit 35):
Talking about a past event

E

10

I wrote Clara an email to thank her
for the present she had given me
for my birthday last week. But as
soon as I pressed the ‘send’ button, I
realised that I had made a mistake
and sent it to her sister instead.

Reporting this past event

‘I have met him before.’

I was sure that I had met him before.
(not … I met him …)

‘The village hasn’t changed much.’

I found that the village hadn’t changed
much. (not … the village didn’t change …)

‘225 people drowned in the recent floods.’

Police said that 225 people had drowned in
the recent floods. (or … drowned …)

‘I stole the watch.’

She admitted that she had stolen the
watch. (or … stole …)

We can use either the past perfect or past simple (and often past continuous and past perfect
continuous; see Units 4 and 7) when we talk about things that we intended to do, but didn’t or won’t
now do in the future:
I had hoped to visit the gallery before I left Florence, but it’s closed on Mondays. (or I hoped
…, I was hoping …, I had been hoping …)
Aron planned to retire at 60, but we have persuaded him to stay for a few more years.
(or Aron had planned …, Aron was planning …, Aron had been planning …)

Unit

Exercises
5.1

5

The events mentioned in the magazine article are listed below. Write the order in which the
events are mentioned and then the order in which they occurred (or were thought to occur).
Compare the two lists and consider why the past perfect (in italics) was used. A & B

How I bought my dream house
When I first saw the old house I had just moved to the area. It had been
empty for about a year and was beginning to need some repairs, but
the house was exactly what I wanted. But by the time I had put together
enough money I learnt that a property developer had bought it and
planned to turn it into a hotel. Six months later I had nearly given up hope
of finding anywhere to live in the village when I heard that the house was
for sale again. The property developer had decided to invest his money
in a new housing development on the edge of the village. I bought the
house immediately and I’ve lived there happily ever since.

events
I moved …
I learnt …
The property developer decided …
I heard …
I first saw the old house
A property developer bought it
I nearly gave up…
I put together enough money…
It was empty
5.2

2

order of events

2

1
1

Underline the correct options. In some cases only one is correct, and in others both are correct.
C&D
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12

5.3

order events are
mentioned in text

Carla Bridges

As Jonas was introduced to Mrs Lopez, he realised that he had met / met her before.
During the previous week, I had been / went to the gym every evening.
He denied that he had taken / took the money from the office.
I thought it was the best film I had seen / saw in my life.
The boy told me that he had lost / lost his train ticket and didn’t know how he would get home.
At the conference, scientists reported that they had found / found a cure for malaria.
The teacher guessed that some of the children had cheated / cheated in the exam.
She said that she had made up / made up her mind who to vote for, and that I couldn’t persuade
her to change.
Thomas explained that he had gone / went home early because he felt ill.
When I asked Maria about Jakub, she admitted that she hadn’t heard / didn’t hear from him for
ages.
The waiter took my plate away before I had finished / finished eating.
Julia said she didn’t want any dinner. Apparently, she had eaten / ate already.

Expand these sets of notes using the past perfect to begin each sentence. E
I / expect / operation / painful
I / hope / leave / by nine
He / not mean / insult / her
Lara / not intend / become / dentist
I / not think of / cook rabbit
1
2
3
4
5

I had hoped to leave by nine , but I overslept and missed the train.
; she always wanted to be a vet.
, but I didn’t feel a thing.
, until Andrei told me how tasty it was.
, but Daria was very offended.

➜ Additional exercise 3 (page 241)

11

Unit

6

Present perfect continuous and present perfect
A

We use the present perfect continuous to express the idea of an
Reminder ➜ A9–A12, A16–A17
activity (a task, piece of work, etc.) in progress until recently or until
the time of speaking:
Have you been working in the garden all day? You look exhausted.
She’s been writing the book since she was in her twenties and at last it’s finished.

now
Note that we often use time expressions to say how long the activity has been in progress.
We don’t use the present perfect continuous with verbs such as belong, know, (dis)like, and
understand that describe unchanging states:
Have you known each other long? (not Have you been knowing …)
I haven’t liked ice cream since I ate too much and was sick. (not I haven’t been liking …)
When we talk about situations (general characteristics or circumstances) that exist until the present
we can often use either the present perfect or present perfect continuous:
We’ve been looking forward to this holiday for ages. (or We’ve looked forward to …)

B

We often use the present perfect or the present perfect continuous to talk about something that
has recently finished if we can still see its results. However, we generally use the present perfect
continuous with verbs that suggest extended or repeated activity. Compare:
He’s broken his finger and is in a lot of pain. (not He’s been breaking …) and
I’ve been playing squash and need a shower! (more likely than I’ve played …)
We use the present perfect continuous rather than the present perfect when we draw a conclusion
from what we can see, hear, etc. We often use this form to complain or criticise:
Who’s been messing around with my papers? They’re all over the place.
You’ve been eating chocolate, haven’t you? There’s some on your shirt.
When we talk about the result of circumstances or an activity, we use the present perfect, rather than
the present perfect continuous. When we focus on the process we often use either the present perfect
or the present perfect continuous. Compare:
Prices have decreased by 7%. (not Prices have been decreasing by 7%.) and
Prices have been decreasing recently. (or Prices have decreased …)
I’ve used three tins of paint on the kitchen walls. (not I’ve been using three tins of paint on the
kitchen walls.) and
I’ve been using a new kind of paint on the kitchen walls. (or I’ve used …)

C

The present perfect continuous emphasises that an activity is ongoing and repeated, while the present
perfect suggests the activity happened only once or on a specified number of occasions:
Miguel has been kicking a football against the wall all day. (more likely than … has kicked …)
He has played for the national team in 65 matches so far. (not He has been playing for the
national team in 65 matches so far.)
Compare:
The workers have been calling for the chairman’s resignation. (= emphasises a number of
times, probably over an extended period) and
Workers have called for management to begin negotiations on pay. (= maybe a number of
times or only once.)

12

Unit

Exercises
6.1

Complete each pair of sentences using the same verb. Use the present perfect in one sentence
and the present perfect continuous in the other. Use negative forms where appropriate. A–C
disappear
1 a
b
2 a
b
3 a
b
4a
b
5 a
b
6 a
b
7 a
b

6.2

6

give

put

read

stay

stop

swim

Martina Gonzalez
in a rented flat since returning to Buenos Aires.
We
at this hotel a couple of times before.
All day, the police
motorists to question them about the accident.
Good, the noise
. I can start concentrating on my work again.
I
any of Dickens’ novels.
I
this book on astrophysics for hours and I’m still only on page six.
Dr Fletcher
the same lecture to students for the last ten years.
Mr Sato
nearly a million pounds to the charity this year.
I did 20 lengths of the pool today. I
that far since I was at school.
I
and I feel exhausted.
In recent years, companies
increasing resources into internet marketing.
The South African coal company
the Calverton Mine up for sale.
An important file
from my office.
Plants and vegetables
from my garden since we had new neighbours.

Here are two views on the government’s announcement that it is to cut the money it gives to
the Influenza Research Centre. If necessary, correct the present perfect continuous verbs using
either the present perfect or past simple. A–C and Unit 3
a Dr Petra Adams, the Director of the Centre
It’s remarkable to think that since 1950 influenza (1) has been
claiming more than 50,000 lives in this country, and in 1957 alone
around 6,000 people (2) have been dying. But over the last 20 years
we at the Centre (3) have been making considerable progress on
understanding the illness. We (4) have been producing over a hundred
books and articles reporting the results of our research and in 2012
they (5) have been awarding the Nobel Prize for medicine to one of
my colleagues. In our more recent work we (6) have been looking
into the effects of influenza on heart disease and we (7) have also
been exploring a possible link between climate change and the recent
increase in the number of cases of influenza. It is a tragedy that the
government (8) has been making this decision now.
b Sabir Khan, the Opposition spokesperson for science
The previous government (1) has been investing huge amounts
of money into the Centre and I think it’s terrible that the present
government (2) has been announcing this cut when the number of
cases of influenza (3) has been increasing. The Centre (4) has been
running successfully for many years. But this decision is just typical of
this government. It (5) has been neglecting health research ever since
it was elected, and (6) has been cutting back on spending on science
generally. Although the government says that the cut is necessary
because of the recent world economic problems, I (7) have been
finding evidence that they (8) have been planning this for some time.
I (9) have been speaking to the Minister about this yesterday and
(10) have also been writing to the Prime Minister demanding that the
decision should be reversed.

➜ Additional exercise 2 (page 241)

13

Unit

Past perfect continuous, past perfect and
past continuous

7

A

We use the past perfect continuous to talk about something that was in
Reminder ➜ A14–A15, A18
progress recently before or up to a past point in time, and the past
perfect when we talk about a finished activity before a past time:
I’d been finishing some work in the garden when Lea arrived, so I didn’t hear her come in.
(not I’d finished some work in the garden when Lea arrived, so I didn’t hear her come in.) and
I’d finished all the ironing so I started cleaning the windows. (not I’d been finishing all the
ironing so I started cleaning the windows.)
had been finishing
past

had finished
now

past

now

We can often use either the past perfect continuous or the past perfect with a similar meaning:
I’d been working / I’d worked hard all year, so I felt that I deserved a holiday.

14

B

If we talk about how many times something happened in a period up to a particular past time, we use
the past perfect, not the past perfect continuous:
How many times had you met him before yesterday? (not How many times had you been
meeting …)
I had stayed in the hotel twice in the 1990s. (not I had been staying in the hotel twice …)

C

The past perfect continuous can be used to talk about a situation or activity that went on before a
particular past time and (i) finished at that time, (ii) continued beyond it, or (iii) finished shortly
before it:
(i) We’d been driving for about an hour when the engine suddenly stopped.
(ii) She felt terrible during the interview because she had been suffering from flu since the
previous day.
(iii) When I last saw Omar, he’d been running and was out of breath.
If we are not interested in how long the activity went on, we can use the past continuous instead of
the past perfect continuous. Compare:
When the merger was announced it became apparent that the two companies had been
discussing the possibility since last year. and
A friend told me about a conversation she’d recently overheard. Two women were discussing
their holiday plans …
I first met Mateo and Lucia when they had been going out together for five years, and they
didn’t get married for another three years after that. and
Karin met Lars when she was going out with his best friend.

D

Remember that we don’t describe states with continuous tenses (see Unit 1), and we use the past
perfect, not the past perfect continuous, even when we focus on the length of a situation up to a
particular past time:
We had only owned the car for six weeks when the clutch broke. (not We had been owning
the car for six weeks …)

E

The past perfect continuous is mainly used in written texts and is less common in speech. Here is an
example in a newspaper article:
The body of a climber who went missing in the Alps was finally found yesterday. Carl Sims had
been climbing alone near the Harz Waterfall, which has claimed many lives in the past.

Unit

Exercises
7.1

7

Complete each pair of sentences using one verb from the box. Use the past perfect continuous
if possible; if not, use the past perfect. A
apply

carry

fly

work

1 a She
only
for the company for a couple of months,
so I was surprised to hear that she’d left.
b She
finally
her way up from trainee to a
management position, and she celebrated her promotion with a big party.
2 a The avalanche
them 500 metres down the mountain but no one was
hurt.
b She took a bottle from the bag she
all the way from home.
3 a We
for visas early, but still hadn’t got them by the week before the
holiday.
b She
for jobs, without success, since leaving university.
4 a He
all the way from New York to be at yesterday’s meeting.
b When the plane was diverted, shortly after take-off, it
from London to
Frankfurt.
7.2

Use the past perfect continuous form of the verb in brackets if appropriate; if not, use the past
perfect. B–D
1 Mrs Bishop
to have children for years, and only became pregnant at the age
of 45. (try)
2 This was the first time we had been to the castle, even though we
Prague a
few times before. (visit)
3 She bought her first watch at the age of eight. It
two pounds. (cost)
4 Emma Willems
novels for ten years before she published her first book.
(write)
5 For some time Daniel
about passing the exams and eventually decided to
change the course he was taking. (worry)
6 My teacher was really annoyed with me. It was the third time I
late for
school that week. (arrive)
7 I
always
it would be easy to get a job, and was
disappointed to be rejected. (believe)
8 We
about Sarah when, to our amazement, she walked through the door.
(talk)
In which one of the sentences where you have used the past perfect continuous do you think
the past continuous is more likely? C

7.3

Study this conversation extract. If the italicised verbs are correct, write ✓. If they are wrong,
correct them using either the past perfect (active or passive) or past perfect continuous. A–E
A: How was your weekend?
B: Not great, actually. I (1)’d really been looking forward to a relaxing couple of days. But early on
Saturday morning Mum phoned to say that Dad (2) had been taking ill.
A: Oh, no! What (3) had happened?
B: She (4) had just been hearing that he (5) had been flown by helicopter to hospital in Edinburgh
from a village called Contin where he (6) had fished with my Uncle Mark.
A: And is he okay? What’s wrong with him?
B: Well, Uncle Mark said that Dad (7) had been complaining of a bad headache most of yesterday,
but he (8) hadn’t been wanting to go back to the hotel and spoil the day. But then in the evening,
just as they (9) had stopped fishing for the day, he (10) had been collapsing…

➜ Additional exercise 3 (page 241)

15

Unit

8

Present and past time: review
A

Continuous and simple

Reminder ➜ Section A

When we focus on an activity itself, starting before and continuing up to (and possibly beyond) a
particular point of time, rather than focusing on actions as completed events, we use continuous forms:
Ingrid can’t come to the phone. She’s washing her hair.
As you’re not using your car at the moment, can I borrow it?
This time yesterday I was flying over the Pacific.
Was she wearing that red dress when you saw her?
We use simple forms to talk about general situations, habits, and things that are or were always true:
When I worked as a postman I got up at three o’clock every morning.
Miguel doesn’t play golf very well.
These birds build their nests on the ground.
The earthquake struck the area at midday yesterday. (past simple for completed events)
We use simple forms with verbs that describe unchanging states (that stay the same):
She intends to work hard at school and go on to university.
Did you understand the instructions we were given?
However, we can use continuous forms with these verbs when they describe something happening or
changing:
She was intending to talk to Tony about the idea, but she didn’t get the opportunity.
I’m understanding physics much better now that Mr Davies is teaching us.

B

Perfect
We use perfect verb forms to describe one event or state from the point of view of a later time. The
present perfect suggests a connection between something that happened in the past and the present
time. Note, however, that the situation or event does not have to continue until the time of speaking,
only to have some connection or relevance to the present time:
I’ve finished that book you wanted, so you can borrow it now.
Have you turned the heating off? I don’t like it to be on when I’m not at home.
Your nose is bleeding. Has somebody hit you?
The past perfect is used to locate a past event before another past event:
I invited him out to dinner, but he said he had already eaten.
By the time I picked up the phone, they had rung off.

C

Combinations of perfect and continuous
We combine the perfect and continuous forms in the present perfect continuous to describe an
activity in progress either at or recently before the time of speaking, and possibly beyond it:
I have been following the discussions on the forum with great interest.
We can also use the present perfect continuous to talk about activities that have recently finished
with some result that can be seen, heard, etc.:
Look at the dirt on your clothes! Have you been digging in the garden again?
The past perfect continuous has a similar meaning. However, the point of reference is not ‘now’
(as it is with the present perfect continuous) but a point in the past:
When we met Lena and Marko, they had been riding.
It had been snowing heavily for hours and when I went to the door I couldn’t open it.

16

Unit

Exercises
8.1

8

Amy is writing a blog for her friends and family as she travels around Australia. Use the present
simple, present continuous, past simple or past continuous of the verbs in the box to complete
the extract. A
In 1–10 use:
arrive

feel (×2)

get

go

know

spend

text

wait

write

In 11–20 use:
ask

complain

enjoy

get

(not) get on

hear

look (×2)

seem

start

I (1) am writing this blog in a hotel room in Perth. I (2)
here a couple
of hours ago after a long coach journey from Adelaide. I (3)
pretty tired so
this will only be a short post before I (4)
to sleep. As you (5)
,I
(6)
last week in Adelaide with Ruby. I (7)
her a month or so ago
to tell her when I would be arriving, and she (8)
at the airport for me when
,  
WKHUH)RUWKH¿UVWIHZGD\V,  
quite jet-lagged, but I
soon (11)
over that after a few days of lazing around on the beach. Ruby
(12)
living in Adelaide a lot, although she (13)
for a new job
just now. It (14)
that she (15)
very well with her colleagues.
Apparently they constantly (16)
about the working conditions and it
(17)
to annoy Ruby. She (18)
me to pass on her best
ZLVKHVWRDOOKHUROGIULHQGV6RQRZ,  IRUZDUGWRH[SORULQJ
Perth. I (20) ......................... it’s a wonderful place. I’ll post again soon. Amy

8.2

Complete this extract from a newspaper article using the past simple, present perfect or past
perfect of the verbs in brackets. B

RONSON SACKED IN UNITED CUTS
Aston United (1) have sacked (sack)
their manager, Neil Ronson. The former England
football international (2)
(say) that he
(3)
(hear) the news when he
(4)
(return) from a three-week holiday
in Spain and that it (5)
(come) as a
complete shock. ‘There (6)
(be) no
hint of any problem when I (7)
(leave)
for the holiday.’ Aston United (8)
(appoint) Ronson as manager two years ago and

8.3

last season they (9)
(finish) second in
the First Division. However, they (10)
(win) only five matches so far this season. The
chairman of the club, Peter White, last night
(11)
(accuse) Ronson of lack of
commitment to the club. ‘Neil’s attitude
(12)
(disappoint) us recently. Over the
last few months he (13)
(spend) more
time on Spanish beaches than working with the
players in Aston.’

Here is the rest of the conversation in Exercise 7.3. If the italicised verb is correct, write ✓.
If it is wrong, correct it using the past simple, present perfect, past perfect, present perfect
continuous or past perfect continuous. A–C
A: (1) Did he have any health problems recently?
B: Well, he (2) ’s been suffering from stress for some time, but we (3) have thought a holiday in
Scotland would be relaxing for him. He (4) worked too hard for months, and we (5) ’ve been
trying to persuade him to have a break for ages before he agreed.
A: So (6) have you gone up to Scotland when you (7) have heard?
B: No, Mum (8) has gone up to be with him, but the doctors (9) have checked him over and (10) had
been saying that it’s not too serious. They (11) gave him some medicine to bring down his blood
pressure and (12) had told him that he needs complete rest for a couple of months. So Mum’s
driving him back in the car tomorrow.
A: Well, send him my best wishes when you speak to him.
B: Thanks, I will do.

17

Unit

9

Will and be going to
A

We can use either will or be going to to talk about something that is
Reminder ➜ B1–B5
planned, or something that we think is likely to happen in the future:
We will study climate change in a later part of the course. (or We are going to study …)
Where will you stay in Berlin? (or Where are you going to stay …?)
The south of the city won’t be affected by the power cuts. (or … isn’t going to be affected …)
We often prefer be going to in informal contexts (see also D).

B

We use will rather than be going to to make a prediction based on our opinion or experience:
Why not come over at the weekend? The children will enjoy seeing you again.
‘Shall I ask Lamar?’ ‘No, she won’t want to be disturbed.’
We use be going to rather than will when we make a prediction based on some present evidence:
The sky’s gone really dark. There’s going to be a storm.
‘What’s the matter with her?’ ‘It looks like she’s going to faint.’

C

To predict the future we often use will with I bet (informal), I expect, I hope, I imagine, I reckon
(informal), I think, I wonder and I’m sure, and in questions with think and reckon:
I imagine the stadium will be full for the match on Saturday.
That cheese smells awful. I bet nobody will eat it.
When do you think you’ll finish work?
Do you reckon he’ll say yes?
Be going to can also be used with these phrases, particularly in informal contexts.

D

We use will when we make a decision at the moment of speaking and be going to for decisions about
the future that have already been made. Compare:
I’ll pick him up at eight. (an offer; making an arrangement now) and
I’m going to collect the children at eight. (this was previously arranged)
‘Pineapples are on special offer this week.’ ‘In that case, I’ll buy two.’ and
When I’ve saved up enough money, I’m going to buy a smartphone.
However, in a formal style, we use will rather than be going to to talk about future events that have
been previously arranged in some detail. Compare:
Are you going to talk at the meeting tonight? and
The meeting will begin at 9 am. Refreshments will be available from 8:30 onwards.

E

We can use will or be going to with little difference in meaning in the main clause of an if-sentence
when we say that something (often something negative) is conditional on something else:
You’ll / You’re going to knock that glass over if you’re not careful.
When the future event does not depend on the action described in the if-clause, we use be going to,
not will. This kind of sentence is mainly found in spoken English. Compare:
I’m going to open a bottle of lemonade, if you want some. (= I’m going to open a bottle of
lemonade. Do you want some?) and
I’ll open a bottle of lemonade if you want some. (= If you say you want some, I’ll open it.)
However, we use will, not be going to, when the main clause refers to offers, requests, promises, etc.
and ability:
If Erik phones, I’ll let you know. (= an offer; ‘…, I’m going to let you know’ suggests ‘I intend to
let you know when Erik phones’)
If you look to your left, you’ll see the lake. (= you’ll be able to see; ‘… you’re going to see …’
suggests ‘I know this is what you can see when you look to your left’)
and when one thing is the logical consequence of another:
If you don’t switch on the monitor first, the computer won’t come on.

18

Exercises
9.1

Unit

9

Correct or improve the sentences where necessary by changing the italicised will (’ll) forms to
be going to forms. A–D
1 Have you seen Nadia recently? She’ll have another baby. ’s going to have
2 The method is quite simple, and I’m sure it will be familiar to most of you already.
3 A: I can’t come over during the day.
B: I’ll see you tomorrow evening, then.
4 Are these new skis yours? Will you take up skiing?
5 Wherever you go in Brazil, you’ll find the people very friendly.
6 Jamie says he’ll be a politician when he grows up – and he’s only five years old!
7 It’s getting very humid – we’ll have a thunderstorm.
8 I hear you’ll sell your car. How much do you want for it?
9 You can’t play football in the garden. I’ll cut the grass.
10 A: What’s the matter with Paula?
B: She says she’ll be sick.
A: She’ll feel better with some fresh air.
11 A: I’ve been offered a new job in Munich, so I’ll leave Camco.
B: When will you tell your boss?
A: I’m not sure. Perhaps I’ll try to see him later today.
12 A: Did I tell you I’ll have dinner with Karl on Thursday?
B: But we’ll see a film with Hamid on Thursday. You’ve known about it for weeks.
A: Sorry. In that case, I’ll sort out a different day with Karl.
13 A: Did you get the theatre tickets?
B: No. I forgot all about them. I’ll book them tomorrow.
14 A: We’ve got small, medium and large. What size do you want?
B: I’m going to have a large one, please.
15 A: Shall I give Ian another ring?
B: Yes, I expect he’ll be home by now.
16 A: What are those bricks for?
B: I’ll build a wall at the side of the garden.

9.2

Complete the sentences with will (’ll) or be going to and an appropriate verb. If both will and
be going to are possible, write them both. E
1 If you want me to, I ’ll explain how the equipment works.
2 If you want to help us, we
these trees at the bottom of the garden.
3 You
your back if you try to lift that box.
4 If I give you the money
you
me some oranges when
you’re out?
5 If you press the red button, the machine
.
6 I
Laura this weekend, if you’d like to come too.
7 He’s been told that if he’s late once more he
.
8 If you listen carefully, you .
an owl in the trees over there.

➜ Additional exercise 4 (page 242)

19

Unit

10

Present simple and present continuous for the future
A

Present simple

Reminder ➜ B6 & B7

We can often use either the present simple or will to talk about future events that are part of some
timetabled or programmed arrangement or routine. However, we prefer the present simple for fixed,
unchangeable events. Compare:
Does the sale finish on Thursday or Friday? (or Will the sale finish …?) and
The sun rises at 5:16 tomorrow. (more likely than The sun will rise …)
We avoid the present simple when we talk about less formal or less routine arrangements, or
predictions. Instead we use will, be going to, or the present continuous:
Are you staying in to watch TV tonight, or are you coming dancing? (not Do you stay to
watch TV tonight, or do you come…)
It’s only a problem in Britain now, but it will affect the rest of Europe soon. (not … but it
affects the rest of Europe soon.)

B

We use the present simple, not will, to refer to the future –
in time clauses with conjunctions such as after, as soon as, before, by the time, when, while, until:
When you see Ben, tell him he still owes me some money. (not When you will see Ben …)
I should be finished by the time you get back. (not … by the time you will get back.)
in conditional clauses with if, in case, provided, and unless:

Provided the right software is available, I should be able to solve the problem.
I’ll bring some sandwiches in case we don’t find anywhere decent to eat.
when we talk about possible future events with suppose, supposing, and what if at the beginning of a
sentence. Note that the past simple can be used with a similar meaning:

Suppose we miss the bus – how will we get home? (or Suppose we missed …)
What if the train’s late? Where shall I meet you then? (or What if the train was late?)

C

Present continuous
We can often use either the present continuous or be going to with a similar meaning to talk about
planned future events. The present continuous indicates that we have a firm intention or have made a
definite decision to do something, although this may not already be arranged:
Are you seeing the doctor again next week? (or Are you going to see …?)
I’m not asking Tom to the party. (or I’m not going to ask …)
However, we don’t use the present continuous for the future –
when we make or report predictions about activities or events over which we have no control (we can’t
arrange these):
I think it’s going to rain soon.
Scientists say that the satellite won’t cause any damage when it falls to Earth.
when we talk about permanent future situations:

People are going to live / will live longer in the future.
Her new house is going to have / will have three floors.

D

20

Many people avoid be going to + go / come and use the present continuous forms of go and come
instead:
I’m going to town on Saturday. (rather than I’m going to go to town …)
Are you coming home for lunch? (rather than Are you going to come …?)

Unit

Exercises
10.1

If possible, use the present simple of a verb from the box to complete each sentence. If not,
use will + infinitive. A–C
accept
change
get
give out
miss
play
rain
read
start
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14

10.2

10

go
lend
look after
stop
want

our exam results on the 20th August.
We
Alex
our cats while we’re away next week.
I think I’ll take an umbrella in case it
.
There is a reading list to accompany my lecture, which I
at the end.
The new drug
on sale in the USA next year.
The concert
at 7:30, not 7:15 as it says in the programme.
Provided it
raining, we’ll go for a walk this afternoon.
What if I
my plans and decide to stay longer? Will I need to renew my visa?
We
Mariam when she leaves, but she says she’ll keep in touch.
Unless my parents
me some money, I won’t be able to go on holiday this
year.
Tonight France
Germany in a match important for both teams.
It is unlikely that the government
the court’s decision.
Supposing I
to upload a video to YouTube? How do I do that?
By the time you
this letter, I should be in New Zealand.

Cross out any answers that are wrong or very unlikely. If two answers are possible, consider the
difference in meaning, if any, between them. C, D & Unit 9
1 It’s not a deep cut, but it
a scar.
a will leave
b is going to leave
c is leaving
2 Did you know I
a new car next week?
a will buy
b am going to buy
c am buying
3 A: I’m not sure how I’ll get to the concert. B: We can take you. We
you up at eight.
a will pick
b are going to pick
c are picking
4 I’m sorry I can’t come for dinner. I
to York tonight.
a will drive
b am going to drive
c am driving
5 The high-speed rail link
the journey time between the cities significantly.
a will cut
b is going to cut
c is cutting
6 I have to go now. I
you back later today.
a will call
b am going to call
c am calling
7 Don’t go out now. I
lunch and it’ll be cold by the time you get back.
a will serve
b am going to serve
c am serving
8 Unless help arrives within the next few days, thousands
.
a will starve
b are going to starve
c are starving

10.3

Complete these dialogues with either present simple for the future or present continuous for
the future using the verbs in brackets. If neither of these is correct, use will or be going to.
Units 9 & 10
1 A: Simon Bianchi (1)
(join) us for dinner. You know, the novelist.
B: Yes, I’ve read some of his books.
A: I’m sure you (2)
(like) him. His latest book (3)
(come) out at the end of this week. If you want, I’m sure he (4)
(give) you
a signed copy.
2 A: Have you heard that BWM (1)
(sack) 300 workers?
B: That’s bad news. Supposing they (2)
(close) completely – that would be
awful.
A: But I’ve heard that they (3)
(build) a new factory in Ireland. If you look on
their website, you (4)
(see) a lot of information about it.

➜ Additional exercise 4 (page 242)

21

Unit

11

Future continuous and future perfect (continuous)
A

Future continuous: I will be doing

Reminder ➜ B8

We can use the future continuous to talk about:
(i) something that is predicted to start before a particular point of future time, and that may continue
after this point (often the result of a previous decision or arrangement):
When it goes into orbit, the spacecraft will be carrying 30 kilos of plutonium.
Anna will be helping us to organise the party.
(ii) a future activity that is part of the normal course of events or that is one of a repeated or regular
series of events:
Dr Lin will be giving the same talk in room 103 at ten next Thursday.
Will you be driving to work, as usual?
We can often use either the future continuous or the present continuous when we talk about arranged
activities or events in the future (see also Unit 10). Compare:
We will be leaving for Istanbul at 7:00 in the evening. (timetabled; or … are leaving …) and
When the race starts later this afternoon the drivers will be hoping for drier weather than last
year. (not … are hoping …; not reporting the details of a programme or timetable)

B

When we don’t want to indicate willingness, intention, invitation, etc., we prefer to use the future
continuous instead of will. For example, if guests have stayed longer than you wanted, and you don’t
know when they are leaving, you might ask:
Will you be staying with us again tonight? (asking about their plans) rather than
Will you stay with us again tonight? (they might think this is an invitation)

C

Future perfect and future perfect continuous: I will have done and I will have been
doing
We use the future perfect to say that something will be ended, completed, or achieved by a particular
point in the future:
By the time you get home I will have cleaned the house from top to bottom.
I’m sure his awful behaviour will soon have been forgotten. (= passive form)
We use the future perfect continuous to emphasise the duration of an activity in progress at a
particular point in the future:
Next year I will have been working in the company for 30 years.
With both the future perfect and future perfect continuous we usually mention the future time
(e.g. By the time you get home …, Next year …).

D

The future continuous, future perfect and future perfect continuous can also be used to say what we
believe or imagine is happening around now:
We could ask to borrow Joe’s car. He won’t be using it today – he went to work by bike.
Most people will have forgotten the fire by now.
Tennis fans will have been queuing at Wimbledon all day to buy tickets.
We can use the future perfect continuous to say what we think was happening at a point in the past:
Motorist Vicky Hesketh will have been asking herself whether speed cameras are a good idea
after she was fined £100 last week for driving at 33 mph in a 30 mph zone.

22

Unit

Exercises
11.1

11

Complete both sentences in each pair with one verb from the box. Use the future continuous
(will / won’t be + -ing) in one sentence and will / won’t + infinitive in the other. A & B
give

leave

move

use

work

1 a We
in an hour or so, so make sure your suitcase is packed.
b Without more cheap housing, families
the village and find homes in town.
2 a
you
late at the office again? I want to know when to cook.
b A: We need to get this order sent out before Monday.
B: Well, I
over the weekend if that will help.
3 a I
my car until next week, so you can borrow it if you like.
b My grandad
a computer. He says he’s very happy with his old typewriter.
4 a Is your suitcase very heavy? I
you a hand with it if you like.
b Dr Sankey
evidence at the trial of James Morgan next week.
5 a He’s parked his car across our drive and says he
it. Shall I call the police?
b The two schools
to a single campus at the beginning of September.
11.2

Make sentences with a beginning from (i), a verb from (ii) (either in the future perfect or future
perfect continuous), and an ending from (iii). C & D
(i)
1 The weather forecast says that
the rain …
2 If the company is making a profit
by the end of the year then we …
3 In two years’ time Morneau …
4 I am confident that I …
5 This book on Proust is really
difficult. On Saturday I …
6 As delegates who arrived early …
1

11.3

(ii)

(iii)

act
achieve
clear
finish
discover
read

… the objective we set ourselves when we
took over.
… by the morning and tomorrow will be dry.
… for 50 years, and shows no sign of retiring
from the theatre.
… the report before the end of the week.
… it for a month, and I’m still only half way.
… there have been some late changes to the
conference programme.

The weather forecast says that the rain will have cleared by the morning and
tomorrow will be dry.

Here is part of an email from Emily, an English teacher in Japan, to her friend Rosa. Underline
the correct option. A & D

Hi Rosa
*UHHWLQJVIURP2VDND+RSHWKLV¿QGV\RXDOOZHOO,VXSSRVHE\QRZVFKRRO  will close / will have closed
IRU&KULVWPDVDQG\RX  will be enjoying / will have been enjoyingDUHVW,W¶VKDUGWREHOLHYHWKDW7LP¶V
DOUHDG\DQGWKDWLW¶VRQO\DIHZPRQWKVXQWLOKH  will be leaving / will have beenOHDYLQJVFKRROIRU
FROOHJH
0\PDLQQHZVLVWKDWP\EURWKHU-RHDQGKLVIDPLO\  will have been arriving / will be arriving next
)ULGD\DVSDUWRIWKHLUELJWULSDURXQGWKHZRUOG%\WKHWLPHWKH\JHWKHUHWKH\  will be going / will
have beenWR&DOLIRUQLDDQG1HZ=HDODQG1RGRXEW-RH¶VFKLOGUHQ  will have been planning / will plan
LWDOORXWIRUPRQWKV7KH\  won’t be spending / won’t have spentDOOWKHLUWLPHZLWKPH-RHKDVWRJR
WR7RN\RRQEXVLQHVVVR,  will have kept / will be keepingWKHUHVWRIWKHIDPLO\HQWHUWDLQHGZKLOHKH¶V
DZD\7KHQWKH\  will all be going / will all have been goingWR.\RWR«

23

Unit

12

Be to + infinitive; be about to + infinitive
A

Be to + infinitive is commonly used in news reports to talk about events that are likely to happen in
the near future:
Police officers are to visit every home in the area.
The main Rome-to-Naples railway line is to be reopened today. (passive form)
It is also used to talk about formal or official arrangements, formal instructions, and to give orders:
You are not to leave the school without my permission.
The European Parliament is to introduce a new law on safety at work.
Children are not to be left unsupervised in the museum. (passive form)
Passive forms are often used to make orders and instructions more impersonal.
Note that we only use be to + infinitive to talk about future events that can be controlled by people.
Compare:
In the next few years, thousands of speed cameras are to appear on major roads. (or … will
appear …) and
Scientists say they can’t predict when or where the disease will appear again. (not … the
disease is to appear again; the appearance of the disease can’t be controlled)
The President is to return to Brazil later today. (or … will return …) and
The comet will return to our solar system in around 500 years. (not The comet is to return …;
the movement of the comet can’t be controlled)
However, when be to + infinitive refers to the future from the past (see Unit 14B), we often use it to
describe what happened to someone, whether they were able to influence events or not:
Matthew Flinders sailed past Tasmania in 1770, but it was to be a further 30 years before he
landed there.
Clare Atkins was to write two more books about her experiences in Africa before her death in
1997.

B

We often use be to + infinitive in if-clauses to say that something must happen first (in the main
clause) before something else can happen (in the if-clause):
If the human race is to survive, we must look at environmental problems now.
The law needs to be revised if justice is to be done. (passive form)
Compare the use of be to + infinitive and the present simple for the future in if-clauses:
If Lopez is to win gold at the next Olympics, he needs to work on his fitness. and
If Lopez wins gold at the next Olympics, he has said that he will retire from athletics.
Note how the order of cause and effects in if-sentences is reversed with these two tenses:
If Lopez is to win gold … (= effect), he needs to work … (= cause) and
If Lopez wins gold … (= cause), he has said that he will retire … (= effect)

C

24

We use be about to + infinitive mainly in conversation to say that something will (not) happen in the
very near future:
We’re about to eat. Do you want to join us?
Appearing on TV might make her famous, but it’s not about to make her rich.
A: Why don’t you switch it off and turn it back on again?
B: Yes, I was about to try that when you came in.
(not Yes, I was to try …) (referring to the future
from the past)

Unit

Exercises
12.1

12

Complete these news extracts using the verbs in brackets. Use be to + infinitive if possible and
will + infinitive if not. Use active or passive forms as necessary. A
1 Jon Stobbard has written his first new play for 15 years. Its first performance
(stage) at the New Victoria Theatre.
2 The new safety system
(stop) trains automatically if they pass a
danger signal.
3 Stafford Boys’ School
(merge) with the nearby Bicton Girls’ School to
form a new co-educational establishment.
4 There are fears that sea levels
(rise) catastrophically in the next 50
years.
5 The old design and technology programme
(replace) with a new
computer science course.
Now use the verbs in the box to do the same in 6 to 10.
become

create

increase

receive

retire

succeed

this summer a year early. He
6 Managing Director Lars Lindberg, 59,
by Christina Fontana, who joined the company last year.
7 As the temperatures fall with the onset of winter, the refugee crisis
more severe.
8 Production line staff at the Heathcote garden furniture factory in Northam
a pay rise following a big new order from Italy.
9 Seventy new posts
at the factory following a major investment by
the parent company in the United States.
10 The recent rapid rise in house prices in the south-east
the demand
for higher salaries among lower-paid workers.
12.2

Underline the correct answers. In some cases both alternatives are possible. B & C
1 You need to work much harder if you have / are to have any chance of passing the exam.
2 My sister is to start / is about to start a PhD in Physics.
3 Mrs Patel is likely to become the Foreign Minister if the party wins / is to win power at the next
election.
4 If you enjoy / are to enjoy romantic comedies, then this is a film you must see.
5 A: Can you type this letter for me?
B: Sorry, I’m just to go / ’m just about to go home. It’ll have to wait until tomorrow.
6 If Beckman recovers / is to recover from a foot injury, it seems certain that he will play in
Saturday’s match against Spain.
7 If the university keeps / is to keep its international reputation, it must first invest in better
facilities for students.
8 Jonas Fischer has denied that he is to resign / is about to resign as marketing manager.
9 It started snowing an hour ago, and from the look of those clouds things are to get / are about to
get a lot worse.
10 If the railway system is improved / is to be improved, the government should invest substantial
amounts of money now.

25

Unit

13

Other ways of talking about the future
A

Some phrases are commonly used to refer to actions or events in the future with a meaning similar to
be about to + infinitive (see Unit 12C). We can use be on the verge of … / brink of … / point of …
(+ -ing or noun) to say that something will happen soon:
People are on the verge of starvation as the drought continues.
Scientists are on the brink of making major advances in the fight against AIDS.
Exhausted, mentally and physically, she was on the point of collapse.
Be on the brink of usually refers to something important, exciting, or very bad.
We use be due to (+ infinitive) to say that something is expected to happen at a particular time,
be sure / bound to (+ infinitive) to say that something is likely or certain to happen, and be set to
(+ infinitive) to say that something is ready to happen:
The company’s chief executive is due to retire next year, but following today’s announcement
of further losses she is sure to be asked to leave sooner.
‘Will there be somewhere to get a coffee at the station?’ ‘Oh, yes, there’s bound to be.’
Her new film is set to be a great success.
Note that we use due to + noun to give the reason for something, not to talk about the future
(e.g. Due to fog, all flights from the airport have been cancelled).

B

We use some verbs with a to-infinitive to talk about intentions:
We guarantee to refund your money if you are dissatisfied
with the computer.
The present simple + to-infinitive or present continuous + to-infinitive
can be used with the verbs marked * to talk about intentions:
I aim to get to Bangkok by the end of June. (or I’m aiming to get …;
I was aiming to get … is also possible, but more tentative)

Also: aim*, agree,
expect*, hope*,
intend*, mean,
plan*, promise,
propose*, resolve,
undertake, want*

Some people, particularly in speech and in journalism, use be looking + to-infinitive to mean
planning a course of action:
We’re looking to create 3,000 jobs in the city over the next year.

C

When the phrases and verbs in A and B are used with past tense forms, they are usually concerned
with future events seen from the past (see also Unit 14):
It was his 64th birthday in 2006 and he was due to retire the following year.
Nathan had resolved to become fluent in Spanish before he left university.
The new management had been looking to create 20 new jobs.

D

Some people use shall (and shan’t) instead of will (and won’t) in statements about the future with I
and we. However, it is more common to use will (particularly its contracted form ’ll) and won’t:
He was a good friend and we shall miss him greatly. (more commonly … we’ll miss …)
I’m just going to buy a newspaper. I shan’t be long. (more commonly I won’t …)
In current English we don’t usually use shall / shan’t with other subjects to talk about the future,
although this is found in formal rules and in older literary styles:
The match referee shall be the sole judge of fair play.
All people of the world shall live together as brothers.

26

Unit

Exercises
13.1

13

Expand the notes to complete the news extracts, using the phrases in A .
verge – become
sure – face
set – make
sure – provide
point – sign
point – move
1/2

brink – go
set – launch
bound – raise
due – return
verge – quit
due – undergo

The decision of Cornico to relocate its international headquarters to Switzerland is
bound to raise questions about the government’s new profits tax. It seems that other
major financial firms are also on the point of moving their headquarters out of London.

3/4

NASA ’s latest Mars probe is
to Earth later today. A spokesperson for NASA
exciting
said that the probe would be bringing back rock samples that are
new information about the planet.

5/6

The Countryside Conservation Society is
a new million-Euro scheme
for the protection of endangered plant species. It is estimated that over 200 species are
extinct in the country.

7/8

Sources at the United Nations have said that the governments of North and South Alicia are
an agreement to end their long-running border dispute. However, any
resistance from rebel forces in South Alicia, who have said
agreement is
they will fight on.

9/10

Tennis star Sancho Gomez is
a second operation on his injured shoulder.
tennis earlier this year after a first operation was unsuccessful.
He was

11/12 EU agriculture ministers are

an important announcement on increasing
support to farmers when they meet in Brussels on Monday. ‘Many farmers are
out of business,’ said the Italian representative, ‘and the matter must be decided very soon.’

13.2

Complete the sentences with the verb pairs from the box. Use either the present simple or
present continuous for the first verb. If both tenses are possible, write them both. B & C
aim – to study
expect – to finish
look – to replace
intend – to move
propose – to deal
resolve – to give up
guarantee – to find
1 My computer is now five years old, and I ’m looking to replace it with a faster one.
2 In the first half of the course we’ll study microbiology, and in the second half I
with genetic engineering.
3 We haven’t completed the work yet, but we
it later this week.
4 I haven’t done much work at college so far, but I
harder from now on.
5 Every New Year he
eating biscuits, but by February
he has started again.
6 We can’t provide the spare parts ourselves, but we
a supplier who can.
7 At the moment I commute for over three hours a day, but I
closer to my work in the next few months.

13.3

Underline the possible options. D
1
2
3
4
5

I have passed your letter on to the manager who shall / will reply shortly.
Sorry, but I shan’t / won’t be able to give you a lift after all.
I think your parents shall / will be very happy with your decision.
Only people over the age of 18 shall / will be eligible to vote in the referendum.
You shan’t / won’t want to eat your dinner tonight after all that chocolate.

27

Unit

14

The future seen from the past
A

There are a number of ways of talking about an activity or
event that was in the future at a particular point in the past.
In order to express this idea, we can use the past tenses of the
verb forms we would normally use to talk about the future.
These forms are often used in reporting (see Units 32–36).
Compare the following sentences:
The future from now …

past

now

The future from the past …

I haven’t got much money, so I think I’ll
stay at home this summer.

Eleni decided that she would stay at home
for the summer.

I’m not going to say anything about the
exams today, because I don’t have time.

I wasn’t going to say anything about the
exams, but the students asked me to.

I’m having a meeting with my tutor
tomorrow to discuss my work.

I couldn’t go to the match because I was
having a meeting with my tutor.

Will you be going alone, or is Louise going
with you?

At the time, I thought I would be going
alone, but then Jan said he wanted to come.

The exam will have finished by three
o’clock, so I’ll see you then.

The exam was so easy that most people
would have finished after 30 minutes.

There is to be a meeting of ministers this
evening.

It was announced that there was to be a
meeting of ministers that evening.

When the school closes, all the children are
to be moved to one nearby.

Mrs Novak heard that she was to be
moved to a post in a nearby school.

As the bell is about to go for the end of the
lesson, pack your books away.

The bell was about to go when all the
children started to pack their books away.

If the future seen from the past is still in the future for the speaker, then either form is possible:
It was announced this morning that there is / was to be a statement this evening.
In some cases we don’t know whether the activity or event happened or not. Compare:
I didn’t phone to give him the news because we were seeing each other later. He was very
upset when I told him. (= we saw each other) and
We were seeing each other later that day, but I had to phone and cancel. (= we didn’t see
each other)

B

To talk about an activity or event that was in the future at a particular point in the past, we can
use was / were to + infinitive (for things that actually happened) and was / were to have + past
participle (for things that were expected, but didn’t happen):
At the time she was probably the best actor in the theatre company, but in fact some of her
colleagues were to become much better known.
The boat, which was to have taken them to the island, failed to arrive.
He was to find out years later that the car he had bought was stolen.
Note, however, that in less formal contexts it is more natural to use be supposed to:
I was supposed to help, but I was ill. (more natural than I was to have helped …)

28

Exercises
14.1

Unit

14

Write ✓ if the italicised parts are correct. If they are wrong, correct them. A
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12

I’m going to do the washing, but we’d run out of washing powder.
The concert tonight would be over by about 9:30. We could eat after that.
When we were passing Ivan’s house, we thought we’d drop in and see him.
A: Where shall I hang my coat? B: Sorry, I thought Ella will have shown you. Over there.
The manager of Newtown United said that the team is to be announced at nine tomorrow.
The second half was about to start, so shall we go back to our seats now?
I knew that by the morning I would be feeling exhausted, but I just wanted to go dancing.
A: Where’s Oliver? He is supposed to be here yesterday, and there’s still no sign of him.
B: I’m about to ask the same question.
I didn’t phone Ben this morning because I was going to see him when I’ve finished work.
DNA testing was to be used by police in the search for the missing Dublin schoolboy. His parents
have welcomed the news.
We are meeting at seven in the Globe coffee bar. Can you be there, too?
We didn’t expect that having a rabbit as a pet will cause so many problems.

In which three cases can we use either a past or present tense form in the italicised parts?
14.2

Choose the more appropriate option, (a) or (b), to complete these sentences. B
1 The meeting was to have taken place in the hall, …
a but had to be cancelled at the last minute.
b and was well attended.
2 She was to have appeared with Heath Ledger in his last film…
a and was a tremendous success.
b but the part went to her sister.
3 Later, in Rome, I was to meet Professor Pearce …
a and was very impressed by his knowledge of Italian culture.
b but he left before I got there.
4 The twenty police officers who were to have gone off duty at eight …
a went to the Christmas party.
b had to remain in the police station.
5 It was to take 48 hours to get to Japan …
a and we were exhausted when we arrived.
b but we managed to do it in only a day.
6 After the war he was to teach at London University …
a but no money was available to employ him.
b for ten years.
7 The bridge was to have been completed this year …
a but a number of accidents have led to delays.
b and is to be opened by the president next month.
8 The new road was to have a major impact on traffic in the busy town centre, …
a making life much easier for commuters.
b but the crowded roads continued.
9 The construction of the cathedral was to have begun in 1650 …
a and go on for over 80 years.
b but a shortage of labour delayed the start for a further 20 years.
10 We were to stay with Rodrigo in Lisbon …
a many times before he moved to Madrid.
b but he moved to Madrid.

29

Unit

15

Can, could, be able to and be allowed to
A

Can, could and be able to: ability

Reminder ➜ C1 – C7

We sometimes use be able to instead of can and could to talk about ability. We avoid be able to –
when we talk about something that is happening as we speak:
Watch me, Mum; I can stand on one leg.
(not … I’m able to stand on one leg.)
before passives:
Films can now easily be streamed online. (rather than Films
are now easily able to be streamed …)
when the meaning is ‘know how to’:
Can you cook? (rather than Are you able to cook?)

B

If we talk about a single achievement, rather than a general ability in the past, we usually use be able
to rather than could. Compare:
Sophie could play the flute quite well. (or … was able to …; a general ability) and
She swam strongly and was able to cross the river easily, even though it was swollen by the
heavy rain. (not She swam strongly and could cross …; a specific achievement)
However, could is usually more natural than be able to –
in negative sentences:
I tried to get up but I couldn’t move.
with verbs of the senses, e.g. feel, hear, see, smell, taste, and with verbs of ‘thinking’, e.g. believe,
decide, remember, understand:
I could remember the crash, but nothing after that.
after the phrases the only thing / place / time, and after all when it means ‘the only thing’:
All we could see were his feet.
to suggest that something almost didn’t happen, particularly with almost, hardly, just, nearly:
I could nearly touch the ceiling.

C

Can and could: possibility
To talk about the theoretical possibility of something happening we use could, not can. However, we
use can, not could, to say that something is possible and actually happens. Compare:
It could be expensive to keep a cat. (= if we had one, it could or it may not be expensive) and
It can be expensive to keep a cat. (= it can be, and it sometimes is)
We use can’t, not couldn’t, to say that something is theoretically or actually impossible:
There can’t be many people in the world who haven’t watched television.
The doctor can’t see you this morning; he’s busy at the hospital.

D

We use can to indicate that there is a very real possibility of a future event happening. Using could
suggests that something is less likely or that there is some doubt about it. Compare:
We can stay with Jake in Oslo. (= we will be able to stay) and
We could stay with Jake in Oslo. (= it’s possible; if he’s there)

E

Could and be allowed to: permission
To say that in the past someone had general permission to do something – that is, to do it at any
time – we can use either could or was / were allowed to. However, to talk about permission for one
particular past action, we use was / were allowed to, but not could. Compare:
Anyone was allowed to fish in the lake when the council owned it. (or … could fish …) and
Although he didn’t have a ticket, Ned was allowed to come in. (not … could come in.)
In negative sentences, we can use either couldn’t or wasn’t / weren’t allowed to to say that
permission was not given in general or particular situations:
I couldn’t / wasn’t allowed to open the present until my birthday.

30

Unit

Exercises
15.1

Underline the correct or more natural option (or both if possible). A & B
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14

15.2

15

Valuables can / are able to be left in the hotel safe. Please ask at the reception desk.
We could / were able to finish the hockey match before it started snowing too heavily.
The rebels could / were able to draw on the support of over 20,000 soldiers.
Could you / Were you able to understand Professor Larsen’s lecture? I found it really difficult.
A: Do you want a game? B: Sorry, I can’t / ’m not able to play chess.
Look at me, I can / ’m able to ride my bike without any help.
When the firefighters arrived they could / were able to put out the flames in a couple of minutes.
The air was so polluted in the city centre, I could hardly / was hardly able to breathe.
I knew Petra had been decorating. I could / was able to smell the paint when I came in.
Can you / Are you able to drive without your glasses?
No changes can / are able to be made to this rail ticket after purchase.
He could / was able to untie the ropes without the guards noticing.
She looked all over the house, but couldn’t / wasn’t able to find her keys anywhere.
I was very busy at work, but I could / was able to have a couple of days off last week.

Complete these blog posts with can, could and be allowed to (or two forms if possible).
Use negative forms where necessary. A–E
a

We went camping in the north of Spain last July. As you probably know, it (1)
rain a lot on the coast, even in midsummer, and the day we arrived we (2)
believe how heavy the rain was. Eventually we found a place to camp, in a field next to a
beach. We had a new tent – the advertisement for it said, ‘This tent (3)
be
assembled in two minutes with no previous experience.’ What a joke! Now, there
(4)
be many people who haven’t had difficulty putting up a tent at some time,
but it took us more than two hours. And then, just as it was done, a man came along and said
that we (5)
camp there – it was private property. So we had to take the tent
down again. Then Eva just said, ‘Well, we (6)
stay here all night. Let’s go to that
hotel in the last village we drove through.’ Unfortunately, when we got there they were full.
But they were very kind and we (7)
camp at the end of their garden!

b

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➜ Additional exercise 5 (page 242)

31

Unit

16

Will, would and used to
A

Will and would

Reminder ➜ C8 – C14

We can use will (for the present) and would (for the past) to talk about –
characteristic behaviour or habits:
Every day Dan will come home from work and turn on the TV.
At school she would always sit quietly and pay attention.
things that are or were always true:
Cold weather will kill certain plants.
During the war, people would eat all kinds of things that we don’t eat now.
(For the use of will to talk about the future, see Unit 9.)
We don’t use will or would in this way to talk about a particular occasion. Compare:
Each time I gave him a problem he would solve it for me. and
Last night I gave him a problem and he solved it for me. (not … he would solve it ...)
However, we can use will not (won’t) and would not (wouldn’t) in either case. Compare:
He would / wouldn’t walk the five miles to his place of work. (characteristic behaviour) and
She wouldn’t say what was wrong when I asked her.

B

In speech, we can stress will or would to criticise people’s characteristic behaviour or habits:
She just won’t do the washing up when I ask her.
I was happy when Ryan left. He would talk about people behind their backs.
We can also express disapproval of something they have done using will:
‘I feel sick.’ ‘Well, if you will eat so much, I’m not surprised.’

C

We can use use will to draw conclusions or state assumptions about things that are the case now
(see also Unit 9B):
Martina will be at home by now. Let’s go and see her.
You will know that Ewan and Lucy are engaged. (= I assume you already know)

D

Would and used to
When we talk about repeated events in the past that don’t happen now we can use either would or
used to + infinitive. However, we can use would only if the time reference is clear. Compare:
We used to play in the garden. (not We would play …; time reference not given) and
Whenever we went to my uncle’s house, we would / used to play in the garden.
We can use used to but not would when we talk about past states that have changed:
The factory used to be over there.
Didn’t you use to have red hair?
We don’t use either used to or would when we say exactly how many times in total something
happened, how long something took, or that a sin