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With over 1.75 million copies sold worldwide, this book is a must-have for all movie lovers. This brand-new edition of 1001 Movies You Must See Before You Die covers more than a century of movie history. Selected and authored by a team of international film critics, every profile is packed with details, plot summaries and production notes, and little-known facts relating to the film's history. Each entry offers a fresh look at some the greatest films of all time. This all-new edition has been updated with:
•New films that span the globe
•Detailed, full-color images
•Key quotations from the movies
•More movie posters than ever
•Up-to-date facts and movie trivia
Learn the complete history of filmmaking, from silent-era sensations such as D.W. Griffith's controversial The Birth of a Nation to recent Oscar nominees like Star Wars: The Force Awakens and Mad Max: Fury Road. Discover little-known facts about Hollywood's most memorable musicals, greatest dramas, noteworthy documentaries, screwball comedies, classic westerns, action and adventure films, and more. Movie lovers of all stripes will thoroughly enjoy this must-have compilation.
سال:
2017
Edition:
7
ناشر کتب:
Barron’s Educational Series
زبان:
english
صفحات:
961
ISBN 13:
9781438050065
فائل:
PDF, 698.58 MB

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آپ کتاب کا معائنہ کر سکتے ہیں اور اپنے تجربات شیئر کرسکتے ہیں۔ دوسرے قارئین کتابوں کے بارے میں آپ کی رائے میں ہمیشہ دلچسپی رکھیں گے۔ چاہے آپ کو کتاب پسند ہے یا نہیں ، اگر آپ اپنے دیانتدار اور تفصیلی خیالات دیںگے تو لوگوں کو نئی کتابیں ملیںگی جو ان کے لئے صحیح ہیں۔
Inside this book is everything you need to know 

about the movies you simply must see—all 1001  

of them! Whether you’re looking for your favorite 

film or just trying to decide what to watch tonight, 

1001 Movies You Must See Before You Die will serve 

as your ultimate movie guide. 

Newly revised and updated, this edition includes 

the most memorable movies that have ever been 

made, right up to the multi-Oscar-winning La La 

Land, to the blockbuster hit Star Wars: The Force 

Awakens, to the heartbreaking Moonlight, plus  

many more. It presents everything you need to  

know about the most magnificent must-see films—

not only the ones you shouldn’t have missed the first 

time around, but also all those classics that are worth 

seeing again and again.

Open this book to any page and you’ll find  

each major film’s vital statistics, plus a few facts that 

just might surprise you. If you’re a film connoisseur, 

you’ll find this updated volume a must for your 

bookshelf—but even if you’re simply a casual 

moviegoer, you’re sure to enjoy browsing through 

this invaluable movie guide.

For students of cinema, for discerning film 

buffs, for enthusiastic fans, and for readers who 

enjoy thumbing through and reminiscing over 

unforgettable screen memories, here’s the place to 

start reading. You’ll find information and reviews 

covering more than a century of memorable movies. 

So read and relish!

YOU MUST SEE BEFORE YOU DIE

GENERAL EDITOR
STEVEN JAY SCHNEIDER

UPDATED BY
IAN HAYDN SMITH

YOU MUST SEE BEFORE YOU DIE
MOVIES

BARRON’S

 

  

MOVIES

STEVEN JAY SCHNEIDER
ISBN: 978-1-4380-5006-5

EA
N

$35.00   Canada $43.99 
www.barronseduc.com

Steven Jay Schneider is a film critic, scholar, and 

producer with postgraduate degrees in Philosophy 

(Harvard University) and Cinema Studies (New York 

University). He is the author of many books on the 

cinematic arts, including 101 Horror Movies You  

Must See Before You Die, available in North America 

from Barron’s.

Ian Haydn Smith ; is the update editor for 1001 

Movies You Must See Before You Die. He is a London-

based writer and the editor of Curzon Magazine.

250 Wireless Blvd., Hauppauge, NY 11788
www.barronseduc.com

Front photo:  
Arrival (2016) © Pictorial Press Ltd/Alamy Stock Photo
Back photo:  
The Wizard of Oz (1939) © AF archive/Alamy Stock Photo
Spine photo:  
Goodfellas (1990) © AF archive/Alamy Stock Photo

Printed in China

“1001 Movies You Must See Before You Die celebrates the most 
creative and influential voices in film. It is a trusted resource  

for movie lovers and one that we proudly reference.”

—Sundance TV

“ . . . packed with all the details movie lovers want to know  
about the world’s greatest films.”

—Publisher’s Weekly 

“This book is a film lover’s dream. It chronicles the  
entire history of cinema, and this updated edition  

includes new movies . . .” 
—Book Page 



1001 MOVIES
YOU MUST SEE BEFORE YOU DIE





GENERAL EDITOR  

STEVEN JAY SCHNEIDER

UPDATED BY  

IAN HAYDN SMITH

1001 MOVIES
YOU MUST SEE BEFORE YOU DIE



A Quintessence Book 

This edition for the United States and Canada published in 2017 
by Barron’s Educational Series, Inc.

Copyright © 2003, 2005, 2008, 2011, 2013, 2015, 2017 Quintessence Editions Ltd.

All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced  
or distributed in any form or by any means without the written  
permission of the copyright holder.

ISBN: 978-1-4380-5006-5

Library of Congress Control No.: 2017941245

All inquiries should be addressed to:
Barron’s Educational Series, Inc.
250 Wireless Boulevard
Hauppauge, New York 11788
www.barronseduc.com

This book was designed and produced by 
Quintessence Editions Ltd.
The Old Brewery, 6 Blundell Street, London N7 9BH
www.1001beforeyoudie.com

Updated Edition
Senior Editor: Elspeth Beidas
Senior Designer: Isabel Eeles
Designer: Dean Martin

Original Edition
Associate Publisher: Laura Price
Project Editor: Catherine Osborne
Researcher: Richard Guthrie
Designers: Ian Hunt, James Lawrence
Creative Director: Richard Dewing

Editorial Director: Ruth Patrick
Publisher: Philip Cooper

The moral right of the contributors of this Work has been asserted  
in accordance with the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act of 1988.

Color reproduction in Singapore
Printed in China
9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1



Contents

Preface    6

Introduction     8

Film Index and Checklist 12

1900   20

1910 24

1920 33

1930 77

1940 158

1950 245

1960 362

1970 502

1980 653

1990 777 

2000 883

2010  914

Contributors 944

Genre Index 946

Director Index 956

Picture Acknowledgments 959



Cinema’s transformation over the course of the last century, from a sideshow 
curiosity to a vast global industry, witnessed the release of hundreds, then 
thousands of films with each passing year. It is impossible to calculate 
how many films have been produced since the Lumieres’ collection of 
shorts premiered at Le Salon Indien du Grand Café in Paris on December 
28, 1895. Many of them will have faded into obscurity, rarely seen by more 
than a small group of people beyond those who were involved in their 
production. The films featured in this book not only represent a drop in a 
vast cinematic ocean, they aim to cover the breadth of choice that has been 
available to audiences since the early days of feature filmmaking—from the 
films made to entertain, to those with more aspirational aims.

1001 Movies You Must See Before You Die was never intended as a “best 
of” collection—although a brief scan through the contents finds the 
majority of titles featured in Sight and Sound’s Critics Top 250 and Directors’ 
Top 100 greatest films poll present here. There are likely to be films here 
that you hate as much as you love. You may consider some entries to be 
insufficiently artful or far too rarefied for mass appeal, depending on your 
taste. Yet every film chosen will provoke a reaction, either good or bad, but 
never indifferent. 

The last decade has seen increased focus and activity in both the 
preservation and rediscovery of films. In some cases, unearthed footage has 
offered a chance to re-view an already established classic. The discovery of 
a complete print of Fritz Lang’s Metropolis, previously thought lost forever, 
in a museum in Buenos Aires has allowed audiences the opportunity to 
enjoy the film in the way that Lang himself envisaged it. (One can only wish 
the same for Erich von Stroheim’s Greed, Orson Welles’s The Magnificent 
Ambersons, or Sam Peckinpah’s Major Dundee.) The work of organizations 
like The World Cinema Fund has also enabled audiences to see a wealth 
of cinema that had only existed in a precarious state. We can now watch 
such films as Ahamed El Maanouri’s Trances, Kim Ki-Young’s The Housemaid, 
Ritwik Ghatak’s Titash Ekti Nadir Naam, and Mário Peixoto’s Limite in the way 
their makers would have wished.

Peixoto’s sublime 1931 film is one of the new additions to this edition, 
which is the first extended revision of 1001 Movies You Must See Before You 
Die since its original publication in 2003. Although the majority of films 
have remained, fifty titles have been added. Some, like Lang’s Metropolis, 
have been unearthed. Others have seen their stock rise and more emphasis 
placed on their importance in world cinema history. They include Yonggang 
Wu’s The Goddess, Kent McKenzie’s The Exiles, Franz Osten’s A Throw of Dice, 
Ted Kotcheff’s Wake in Fright, or Herbert Ponting’s The Great White Silence. 
Hopefully, audiences unfamiliar with these films will seek them out and 
enjoy them just as much as better-known titles. 

There is also the issue of changing trends and tastes. Not all films 
survive the test of time. In some cases they have been removed to make 

Preface  By Ian Haydn Smith

6



way for another title from the same era or by the same director, one which 
might deserve greater recognition or is simply a better example of a 
filmmaker’s work. Such is the case with Hitchcock’s Sabotage and The Lady 
Vanishes, Ingmar Bergman’s Winter Light and Summer with Monika, Luis 
Buñuel’s The Young One and The Exterminating Angel, Orson Welles’s The 
Stranger and F for Fake, Rogers and Hammerstein’s Seven Brides for Seven 
Brothers and Oklahoma, Bill Forsythe’s Housekeeping and Local Hero, and 
David Cronenberg’s Naked Lunch and Dead Ringers. In other instances, films 
have been included because their initial omission might now seem odd. 
Who could begrudge Rudolf Valentino in The Eagle, The Adventures of Prince 
Achmed, Mrs Minniver, Some Came Running, Mary Poppins, Diva, Hana-bi, or 
even The Towering Inferno being brought into the fold?

In attempting to balance the survey across the entire spectrum 
of cinema’s history, acknowledging the important impact of certain 
individuals, as well as the films they made or appeared in, it was occasionally 
necessary to trim the presence of certain figures. I Walked with a Zombie is a 
fine film, but Val Lewton’s 1940s productions are already well represented. 
As for Alfred Hitchcock, there is so much material already available on him, 
it was decided to reduce his presence slightly. (I hope no one will resent the 
removal of Hitchcock’s flawed psychological thriller Spellbound in favor of 
Henry Hathaway’s ludicrously entertaining and under-appreciated drama 
Peter Ibbertson, which André Breton himself described as a “triumph of 
surrealist thought.”)

Some removals were tough. One Eyed Jacks, The Man From Laramie, 
Angel Face, and Utu are fine films. The inclusion of The Devils, The Hired 
Hand, Distant Voices, Still Lives, and Sleeping Dogs is not meant to suggest 
they are better. Their addition, like all the other titles in this book, both new 
and old, are a provocation—throwing down the gauntlet for you to choose 
your own movies to die for.

Ian Haydn Smith is the update editor for the revised tenth anniversary edition 
of 1001 Movies You Must See Before You Die. He is a London-based writer 
and the editor of Curzon Magazine.

7



1001 Movies You Must See Before You Die is, as the title suggests, a book that 
seeks not just to inform and to prescribe, but also to motivate—to turn its 
curious readers into ardent viewers and to make it obvious that the pressure 
is on, that time is short, and that the number of films eminently worth 
watching has become very long indeed.

Nowadays, “Top 10 Movie” lists survive almost exclusively as annual 
critics’ polls; and talk of “The 100 Greatest Films” tends to be restricted either 
to specific genres, such as comedy, horror, sci-fi, romance, or the Western, or 
to particular national cinemas, such as France, China, Italy, Japan, the U.K, or 
the U.S. All of this points to the impossibility, or at least the irresponsibility, 
of selecting a number less than (oh let’s just say) a grand to work with when 
it comes to preparing a list of “best,” or most valuable, or most important, or 
most unforgettable movies—a list that aims to do justice and give coverage 
to the entire history of the medium.

With this latter goal in mind, even 1001 can quickly start to seem like 
way too small a number. Maybe not so small if silent movies were kept off 
the list; or avant-garde films; or Middle Eastern films; or animated movies; 
or documentaries; or shorts. . . . But these strategies of exclusion are in 
the end all just ways of taking the pressure off, of drawing arbitrary lines 
in the cinematic sand and refusing to make the heap of difficult decisions 
necessary to end up with a limited selection of films that treats all the 
heterogeneous types and traditions comprising motion picture art with 
equal and all due respect. The book you are holding in your hands takes a 
great risk in offering up an all-time, all-genre, all-world, must-see films list. 
But it is a risk well worth taking, and if you make the effort to go and see the 
films discussed herein, you can be sure to die a happy moviegoer. In short: 
The more you see, the better off you’ll be.

So how to determine which 1001 movies must be seen before dying? 
How much easier (and less controversial) it would be to come up with 1001 
movies that should be avoided at all costs! It is no surprise to learn that 
film criticism hardly qualifies as an exact science—Roger Ebert’s infamous 
formula “Two thumbs up, way, way up!” notwithstanding—and it is hardly 
an exaggeration to claim that one person’s Midnight Cowboy may well be 
another one’s Ishtar. Perhaps there are ways of objectively comparing, 
even ranking, highly codified and historically specific cycles, movements, 
or subgenres, such as the 1970s Italian thriller—in this case on the basis of 
the form’s aestheticized violence, labyrinthine narratives, and psychological 
resonance. And maybe it really is legitimate to separate out Hitchcock’s 
indisputable classics (North By Northwest, Rear Window, Vertigo, Psycho, 
The Birds, and so on) from what are often held to be the director’s weaker 
efforts (Torn Curtain, Family Plot, Topaz, The Paradine Case). But what basis 
could there possibly be for deciding between Tsai Ming-liang’s What Time Is 
It There? and Robert Aldrich’s What Ever Happened to Baby Jane? Or between 
George Méliès’s A Trip to the Moon and Marleen Gorris’s A Question of Silence? 
If the goal of this book is indeed to include a little bit of everything, then 

8

Introduction  By Steven Jay Schneider



what is to prevent the resulting list of 1001 films from being just a cinematic 
smorgasbord—a case of mere variety taking precedence over true value?

Good questions all. The first step in determining the 1001 movies to be 
included here involved taking a close look at a number of existing “greatest,” 
“top,” “favorite,” and “best” film lists, and prioritizing titles based on the 
frequency with which they appeared. This allowed us to identify something 
like a canon of classics (including modern and contemporary films) that we 
felt confident warranted a spot in this book on the joint basis of quality and 
reputation. By no means did every film that turned up on these shorter, 
occasionally idiosyncratic lists make our cut of 1001, but the exercise 
at least gave us some key reference points and significantly reduced the 
unavoidably subjective nature of the selection process.

After we tentatively settled on an initial batch of around 1,300 titles,  
we proceeded to go through the list again (and again, and again, and 
again) with the dual—and conflicting—aim of reducing the overall number 
while still achieving sufficient coverage of the medium’s various periods, 
national cinemas, genres, movements, traditions, and notable auteurs. 
With respect to the latter, we took the notion of an “auteur” in the loosest 
possible sense to include not only directors (Woody Allen, Ingmar Bergman, 
John Cassavetes, Federico Fellini, Jean-Luc Godard, Abbas Kiarostami, 
Satyajit Ray, among others), but also actors (Humphrey Bogart, Marlene 
Dietrich, Toshiro Mifune), producers (David O. Selznick, Sam Spiegel, Irving 
Thalberg), screenwriters (Ernest Lehman, Preston Sturges, Cesare Zavattini), 
cinematographers (Gregg Toland, Gordon Willis, Freddie Young), composers 
(Bernard Herrmann, Ennio Morricone, Nino Rota), and others.

9



We were also mindful of not giving automatic preference—free passes, 
as it were—to self-consciously “quality” productions or high cinematic art 
(historical epics, Shakespeare adaptations, Russian formalist experiments) at 
the expense of ignoring the so-called “low” genres (slapstick comedy, 1930s 
gangster films, blaxploitation cinema), or even movies that are of somewhat 
questionable aesthetic merit (Pink Flamingos, Saturday Night Fever, The Blair 
Witch Project), wholeheartedly populist appeal (Top Gun, Rain Man, Big, E.T.: 
The Extra-Terrestrial), or dubious ideological or ethical value (The Birth of a 
Nation, Freaks, Triumph of the Will, Salò or The 120 Days of Sodom). Instead 
we endeavored to adjudge each of our candidate selections on their own 
terms, which meant first figuring out as best we could just what the “terms” 
in question consisted of—not always an easy or obvious task, as in the 
case of Pink Flamingos, whose infamous tagline read, “An exercise in poor 
taste”—and then coming up with ways of separating the wheat from the 
chaff (even when the difference between the two might seem so slight as  
to be indiscernible or irrelevant).

What’s that old saying, something along the lines of “Even if you could 
have filet mignon every single day, once in a while you’re bound to crave a 
hamburger.” The point here is, even if your filmgoing preferences lie heavily 
on the side of acknowledged world classics (Citizen Kane, Rashomon, 
Raging Bull, Battleship Potemkin) or the treasures of European art cinema 
(L’Avventura, Hiroshima Mon Amour, Last Tango in Paris), there is sure to 
come a time when you long to see a movie with a wholly different agenda, 
whether it’s a Hollywood blockbuster (Jurassic Park, The Empire Strikes Back, 
Titanic), an underground oddity (Scorpio Rising, Flaming Creatures, Hold Me 
While I’m Naked), or a cult curiosity piece (El Topo, Seconds, Slacker, Mondo 
Cane, Tetsuo). As we envisioned it, our main task was to make sure that 
whatever your cinematic tastes—in general, or on those days when you 
feel like trying something new—this book would be a menu where every 
dish is a winner.

Finally, after making the last agonizing cuts that were required to 
bring the list down to a “mere” 1001, the remaining step was for us 
to tweak the results based on the feedback and suggestions offered 
by our esteemed group of contributors, whose collective experience, 
expertise, and passion for watching, discussing, and writing about 
motion pictures has ensured that, while no list of all-time-greatest 
anythings can possibly be perfect (whatever that means) or utterly 
uncontroversial (and wouldn’t that be dull?), the one you have 
before you is, to be sure, as good as it gets. But it isn’t just the list itself  
that makes this book so special: It is also the specially commissioned entries 
that accompany each of the 1001 movies included on that list—concise, 
thoughtful, stimulating essays that seamlessly combine important plot 
details, insightful commentary, cultural and historical context, and a fair 
share of trivia besides. (George Lucas was originally set to direct Apocalypse 
Now? Who knew?) Don’t be fooled by the ease with which these essays are 

10



digested. There is a definite skill—one might even say an art—to writing 
a profound, engaging piece of only 500 words on a film like Casablanca, 
The Searchers, or The Rules of the Game, much less 350 words on Boogie 
Nights, Cries and Whispers, or The Night of the Hunter, or (gasp!) 200 words 
on Marketa Lazarova, The Pianist, or Cleo from 5 to 7. Somehow, with great 
aplomb, these authors have managed to pull it off, and brilliantly.

As for my own experience working on this book, I can only say that the 
pain of having to cross several personal favorites off the list was more than 
made up for by the pleasures of admiring the resulting medley, of reading 
so many wonderful film entries by so many wonderful writers on film, and 
of finding out so much about the history, traditions, and secret treasures 
of the cinema that I never knew before. Even if you have already seen all 
1001 movies discussed and paid tribute to in these pages (congratulations, 
though I seriously doubt it), I’m sure you will benefit tremendously from 
reading about them here.

But the clock continues to tick away. . . . So start reading already, 
 and keep watching!

***

As general editor of 1001 Movies You Must See Before You Die, I have the 
honor and the privilege of being able to give thanks in print to all the 
individuals responsible for ensuring the timely completion and inevitable 
success of this ambitious, enjoyable, eminently worthwhile project. My 
sincerest gratitude goes out to Laura Price, Catherine Osborne, and the 
rest of the remarkably industrious and conscientious staff at Quintet 
Publishing, a division of the Quarto Group; to Andrew Lockett of the 
British Film Institute; to the close to sixty contributors from eight different 
countries who worked under tight deadlines and a slave-driving editor 
(me) to produce the entertaining and educational film entries that make 
up this volume; and, as always, to my family, friends, and colleagues, whose 
support and encouragement continues to be my not-so-secret weapon.

Steven Jay Schneider is a film critic, scholar, and producer, with M.A. degrees in 
Philosophy and Cinema Studies from Harvard University and New York University, 
respectively. He is the author and editor of a number of books on movies.

11



Use the film index and checklist to look  
up your favorite films, and keep track  
of what you have watched. Remember, 
films with both a foreign and an English 
language title are listed twice. 

 ❏ 12 Angry Men  328
 ❏ 12 Years a Slave  924
 ❏ 13th  941
 ❏ 2001: A Space Odyssey  484
 ❏ 39 Steps, The  120
 ❏ 400 Blows, The  350
 ❏ 42nd Street  100
 ❏ 8½  400

A
 ❏ À bout de souffle  370
 ❏ “A” gai waak juk jaap  735
 ❏ À nous la liberté  83
 ❏ Abre los ojos  863
 ❏ Ace in the Hole  253
 ❏ Actor’s Revenge, An  413
 ❏ Actress, The  807
 ❏ Adam’s Rib  238
 ❏ Adventure, The  369
 ❏ Adventures of Prince Achmed, The   

55
 ❏ Adventures of Priscilla, Queen of the 

Desert, The  827
 ❏ Adventures of Robin Hood, The  140
 ❏ Affair to Remember, An  325
 ❏ African Queen, The  257
 ❏ Age of Gold, The  80
 ❏ Aguirre, der Zorn Gottes  538
 ❏ Aguirre, the Wrath of God  538
 ❏ Ai no corrida  609
 ❏ Aileen Wuornos: The Life and Death 

of a Serial Killer  897
 ❏ Airplane!  662
 ❏ Akira  754
 ❏ Ali: Fear Eats the Soul  584
 ❏ Alice  752
 ❏ Alien  643
 ❏ Aliens  728
 ❏ All About Eve  248
 ❏ All About My Mother  881
 ❏ All Quiet on the Western Front  79
 ❏ All That Heaven Allows  314
 ❏ All That Jazz  648
 ❏ All the President’s Men  602
 ❏ Alphaville  436
 ❏ Alphaville, une étrange aventure de 

Lemmy Caution  436
 ❏ Amadeus  705
 ❏ Amarcord  570
 ❏ American Beauty  879
 ❏ American Friend, The  615
 ❏ American Graffiti  556

 ❏ American in Paris, An  256
 ❏ American Werewolf in London, An 

663
 ❏ Amores perros  888
 ❏ Anatomy of a Murder  356
 ❏ Andalusian Dog, An  69
 ❏ Andrei Rublev  492
 ❏ Andrei Rublyov  492
 ❏ Angels with Dirty Faces  140
 ❏ Angst Essen Seele Auf  584
 ❏ Annie Hall  616
 ❏ Aparajito  333
 ❏ Apartment, The  372
 ❏ Apocalypse Now  646
 ❏ Apur Sansar  359
 ❏ Archangel  783
 ❏ Ariel  752
 ❏ Arrival  942
 ❏ Artist, The  917
 ❏ Artists and Models  301
 ❏ Ascent  609
 ❏ Ashes and Diamonds  342
 ❏ Asphalt Jungle, The  245
 ❏ Astenicheskij sindrom  771
 ❏ Asthenic Syndrome, The  771
 ❏ Atlantic City  655
 ❏ Au hasard Balthazar  452
 ❏ Au revoir les enfants  733
 ❏ Audition  878
 ❏ Autumn Afternoon, An  390
 ❏ Avatar  913
 ❏ Awful Truth, The  138

B
 ❏ Ba wang bie jie  814
 ❏ Bab el hadid  343
 ❏ Babbetes Gaestebud  743
 ❏ Babe  837
 ❏ Babette’s Feast  743
 ❏ Back to the Future  711
 ❏ Bad and the Beautiful, The  266
 ❏ Bad Day at Black Rock  305
 ❏ Badkonake sefid  839
 ❏ Badlands  554
 ❏ Baker’s Wife, The  141
 ❏ Ballad of Narayama, The  688
 ❏ Balthazar  452
 ❏ Band Wagon, The  271
 ❏ Bank Dick, The  164
 ❏ Barefoot Contessa, The  291
 ❏ Barren Lives  408
 ❏ Barry Lyndon  585
 ❏ Batman  767
 ❏ Battle of Algiers, The  434
 ❏ Battle of San Pietro, The  205
 ❏ Battleship Potemkin, The  51
 ❏ Beau Travail  880

 ❏ Beautiful Troublemaker, The  788
 ❏ Beauty and the Beast  210
 ❏ Before the Revolution  421
 ❏ Being John Malkovich  875
 ❏ Being There  644
 ❏ Beiqing chengshi  776
 ❏ Belle de jour  455
 ❏ Ben-Hur  354
 ❏ Best Years of Our Lives, The  208
 ❏ Beverly Hills Cop  703
 ❏ Bharat Mata  335
 ❏ Bicycle Thief, The  223
 ❏ Big  759
 ❏ Big Chill, The  687
 ❏ Big Heat, The  280
 ❏ Big Parade, The  54
 ❏ Big Red One, The  659
 ❏ Big Sleep, The  214
 ❏ Bigamist, The  275
 ❏ Bigger Than Life  320
 ❏ Bird with the Crystal Plumage,  The 511
 ❏ Birdman  926
 ❏ Birds, The  402
 ❏ Birth of a Nation, The  24
 ❏ Biruma no tategoto  318
 ❏ Bitter Tea of General Yen, The  102
 ❏ Bitter Tears of Petra von Kant, The 546
 ❏ Black Cat, The  117
 ❏ Black God, White Devil  424
 ❏ Black Narcissus  220
 ❏ Black Orpheus  353
 ❏ Blackmail  76
 ❏ Blade Runner  675
 ❏ Blair Witch Project, The  874
 ❏ Blazing Saddles  582
 ❏ Blonde Cobra  410
 ❏ Blowup  444
 ❏ Blue Angel, The  78
 ❏ Blue is the Warmest Color  923
 ❏ Blue Kite, The  809
 ❏ Blue Velvet  721
 ❏ Boat, The  665
 ❏ Bob le flambeur  313
 ❏ Bob the Gambler  313
 ❏ Body Heat  667
 ❏ Bonnie and Clyde  473
 ❏ Boogie Nights  860
 ❏ Boudu sauvé des eaux  93
 ❏ Boudu Saved from Drowning  93
 ❏ Bowling for Columbine  894
 ❏ Boyhood  925
 ❏ Boyz ‘n the Hood  787
 ❏ Brave-Hearted Will Take the Bride, 

The  840
 ❏ Braveheart  836
 ❏ Brazil  713
 ❏ Breakfast at Tiffany’s  381

12

Film Index and Checklist



 ❏ Breakfast Club, The  707
 ❏ Breaking Away  642
 ❏ Breaking the Waves  858
 ❏ Breathless  370
 ❏ Bride of Frankenstein  122
 ❏ Bridge on the River Kwai, The  334
 ❏ Brief Encounter  206
 ❏ Brighter Summer Day, A  789
 ❏ Brightness  735
 ❏ Bring Me the Head of Alfredo Garcia 

572
 ❏ Bringing Up Baby  142
 ❏ Broadcast News  742
 ❏ Brokeback Mountain  906
 ❏ Broken Blossoms  32
 ❏ Bronenosets Potyomkin  51
 ❏ Buffalo 66  870
 ❏ Bull Durham  748
 ❏ Burmese Harp, The  318
 ❏ Butch Cassidy and the Sundance 

Kid  494
 ❏ Butcher, The  504

C 
 ❏ C’era una volta il west  475
 ❏ C’est arrivé près de chez vous  808
 ❏ Cabaret  539
 ❏ Cabin in the Woods, The  918
 ❏ Cabinet of Dr. Caligari, The  31
 ❏ Cairo Station  343
 ❏ Camille  129
 ❏ Campanadas a medianoche  437
 ❏ Captain Blood  123
 ❏ Captains Courageous  137
 ❏ Caravaggio  724
 ❏ Carmen Jones  295
 ❏ Caro diario  833
 ❏ Carrie  605
 ❏ Casablanca  182
 ❏ Cat People  184
 ❏ Ceddo  615
 ❏ Celebration, The  869
 ❏ Celine and Julie Go Boating  583
 ❏ Céline et Julie vont en bateau  583
 ❏ Chant of Jimmie Blacksmith, The  631
 ❏ Chariots of Fire  666
 ❏ Chelovek s kinoapparatom  72
 ❏ Children of a Lesser God  723
 ❏ Children of Paradise, The  204
 ❏ Chimes at Midnight  437
 ❏ Chinatown  578
 ❏ Chinese Ghost Story, A  739
 ❏ Chong qing sen lin  834
 ❏ Christ Stopped at Eboli  649
 ❏ Christmas Story, A  684
 ❏ Chronicle of a Summer  387
 ❏ Chronique d’un été  387

 ❏ Chungking Express  834
 ❏ Cidade de deus  895
 ❏ Cinema Paradiso  757
 ❏ Citizen Kane  166
 ❏ City Lights  85
 ❏ City of God  895
 ❏ City of Sadness, A  776
 ❏ Cléo de 5 à 7  389
 ❏ Cleo from 5 to 7  389
 ❏ Clerks  830
 ❏ Clockwork Orange, A  518
 ❏ Close Encounters of the Third Kind  

610
 ❏ Close-Up  779
 ❏ Closely Watched Trains  466
 ❏ Cloud-Capped Star, The  373
 ❏ Clueless  842
 ❏ Color of Pomegranates, The  492
 ❏ Color Purple, The 719
 ❏ Come and See  708
 ❏ Come Drink With Me  447
 ❏ Conformist, The  503
 ❏ Consequences of Love, The  901
 ❏ Conte d’hiver  805
 ❏ Contempt  409
 ❏ Conversation, The  576
 ❏ Cook, the Thief, His Wife & Her Lover, 

The  768
 ❏ Cool Hand Luke  457
 ❏ Cool World, The  410
 ❏ Cow, The  474
 ❏ Cranes Are Flying, The  332
 ❏ Cría cuervos  598
 ❏ Cria!  598
 ❏ Cries and Whispers  542
 ❏ Crimes and Misdemeanors  766
 ❏ Cristo si è fermato a Eboli  649
 ❏ Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon  890
 ❏ Crowd, The  66
 ❏ Crumb  822
 ❏ Crying Game, The  809
 ❏ Csillagosok, katonák  459
 ❏ Cyclo  841
 ❏ Czlowiek z marmuru  620
 ❏ Czlowiek z zelaza  668

D 
 ❏ Da hong deng long gao gao gua  799
 ❏ Da zui xia  447
 ❏ Daisies  446
 ❏ Dances with Wolves  781
 ❏ Dangerous Liaisons  763
 ❏ Dao ma zei  732
 ❏ Dark Knight, The  911
 ❏ Das Boot  665
 ❏ Das Kabinett des Doktor Caligari  31
 ❏ Das Leben der Anderen  908

 ❏ David Holzman’s Diary  481
 ❏ Dawn of the Dead  634 
 ❏ Day for Night  561
 ❏ Day in the Country, A  132
 ❏ Day the Earth Stood Still, The  260
 ❏ Daybreak  152
 ❏ Days of Heaven  628
 ❏ De Man die Zijn Haar Kort Liet 

Knippen  435
 ❏ De Stilte Rond Christine M.  683
 ❏ De Vierde Man  690
 ❏ Dead Man  846
 ❏ Dead Ringers  763
 ❏ Dead, The  747
 ❏ Dear Diary  833
 ❏ Decalogue, The  760
 ❏ Decline of the American Empire, 

The  727
 ❏ Deep End  507
 ❏ Deer Hunter, The  632
 ❏ Deewaar  591
 ❏ Defiant Ones, The  338
 ❏ Dekalog, Jeden  760
 ❏ Delicatessen  797
 ❏ Deliverance  537
 ❏ Demon, The  428
 ❏ Der Amerikanische Freund  615
 ❏ Der Blaue Engel  78
 ❏ Der Himmel Über Berlin  736
 ❏ Der Letzte Mann  42
 ❏ Der Untergang  902
 ❏ Dersu uzala  573
 ❏ Deseret  836
 ❏ Destry Rides Again  149
 ❏ Det sjunde inseglet  326
 ❏ Detour  201
 ❏ Deus e o diabo na terra do sol  424
 ❏ Deux ou trois chose que je sais d’elle  

454
 ❏ Devils, The  522
 ❏ Diary of a Country Priest  259
 ❏ Die Abenteuer des Prinzen Achmed 55
 ❏ Die Bitteren Tränen der Petra von 

Kant  546
 ❏ Die Blechtrommel  651
 ❏ Die Büchse der Pandora  74
 ❏ Die Ehe der Maria Braun  638
 ❏ Die Hard  762
 ❏ Die xue shuang xiong  770
 ❏ Dilwale Dulhaniya le Jayenge  840
 ❏ Diner  676
 ❏ Dirty Harry  517
 ❏ Discreet Charm of the Bourgeoisie, 

The  543
 ❏ Distant Voices, Still Lives  764
 ❏ District 9  912
 ❏ Diva  663
 ❏ Do ma daan  727

13



 ❏ Do the Right Thing  772
 ❏ Docks of New York, The  67
 ❏ Doctor Zhivago  431
 ❏ Dodsworth  131
 ❏ Dog Day Afternoon  591
 ❏ Dog Star Man  389
 ❏ Dog’s Life, A  396
 ❏ Don’t Look Now  560
 ❏ Double Indemnity  196
 ❏ Double Life of Veronique, The  798
 ❏ Down by Law  726
 ❏ Downfall  902
 ❏ Dr. Mabuse, der Spieler  35
 ❏ Dr. Mabuse, Parts 1 and 2  35
 ❏ Dr. Strangelove  422
 ❏ Dracula  86
 ❏ Draughtsman’s Contract, The  684
 ❏ Drugstore Cowboy  771
 ❏ Duck Soup  105
 ❏ Dumbo  175

E 
 ❏ E.T.: The Extra-Terrestrial  670
 ❏ Eagle, The  48
 ❏ Ear, The  508
 ❏ Earth  82
 ❏ Earth Entranced  468
 ❏ Easy Rider  497
 ❏ Eclipse, The  395
 ❏ Edward Scissorhands  784
 ❏ El ángel exterminador  397
 ❏ El espíritu de la colmena  568
 ❏ El labertino del fauno  907
 ❏ El norte  690
 ❏ El Topo  505
 ❏ Elephant  897
 ❏ Elephant Man, The  658
 ❏ Empire Strikes Back, The  654
 ❏ English Patient, The  856
 ❏ Enter the Dragon  558
 ❏ Eraserhead  624
 ❏ Europa ‘51  263
 ❏ Europa Europa  785
 ❏ Evil Dead, The  671
 ❏ Exiles, The  382
 ❏ Exorcist, The  565
 ❏ Exterminating Angel, The  397
 ❏ Eyes Without a Face  362

F
 ❏ F for Fake  566
 ❏ Fa yeung nin wa  884
 ❏ Faces  476
 ❏ Fanny and Alexander  682
 ❏ Fanny och Alexander  682
 ❏ Fantasia  159
 ❏ Fantastic Planet  569

 ❏ Farewell My Concubine  814
 ❏ Farewell, My Lovely  198
 ❏ Fargo  850
 ❏ Fast Times at Ridgemont High  671
 ❏ Faster, Pussycat! Kill! Kill!  438
 ❏ Fat City  547
 ❏ Fatal Attraction  747
 ❏ Faustrecht der Freiheit  594
 ❏ Ferris Bueller’s Day Off  728
 ❏ Festen  869
 ❏ Field of Dreams  767
 ❏ Fiends, The  287
 ❏ Fight Club  878
 ❏ Fireman’s Ball, The  470
 ❏ Fires Were Started  185
 ❏ Fish Called Wanda, A  755
 ❏ Fitzcarraldo  679
 ❏ Five Easy Pieces  506
 ❏ Flaming Creatures  404
 ❏ Floating Weeds  361
 ❏ Fly, The  729
 ❏ Foolish Wives  41
 ❏ Footlight Parade  102
 ❏ Forbidden Games  262
 ❏ Forbidden Planet  319
 ❏ Force of Evil  227
 ❏ Forrest Gump  831
 ❏ Four Weddings and a Funeral  830
 ❏ Fourth Man, The  690
 ❏ Fox and His Friends  594
 ❏ Frankenstein  88
 ❏ Freaks  99
 ❏ Freedom for Us  83
 ❏ French Connection, The  528
 ❏ Frenzy  548
 ❏ From Here to Eternity  277
 ❏ Full Metal Jacket  740
 ❏ Funny Games  862

G
 ❏ Gaav  474
 ❏ Gabbeh  852
 ❏ Gallipoli  666
 ❏ Gandhi  680
 ❏ Gangs of New York  893
 ❏ Garden of the Finzi-Continis, The  517
 ❏ Gaslight  195
 ❏ Gegen die Wand  900
 ❏ General, The  60
 ❏ Gentlemen Prefer Blondes  281
 ❏ Gertrud  427
 ❏ Get Carter  529
 ❏ Ghostbusters  698
 ❏ Giant  322
 ❏ Gigi  338
 ❏ Gilda  215
 ❏ Gimme Shelter  516

 ❏ Giulietta degli spiriti  433
 ❏ Gladiator  885
 ❏ Gleaners and I, The  883
 ❏ Glengarry Glen Ross  805
 ❏ Glory  768
 ❏ Goddess, The  113
 ❏ Godfather, The  544
 ❏ Godfather: Part II, The  574
 ❏ Godson, The  464
 ❏ Gold Diggers of 1933  106
 ❏ Gold Rush, The  53
 ❏ Golden Coach, The  269
 ❏ Golden River  442
 ❏ Goldfinger  416
 ❏ Gone with the Wind  150
 ❏ Good Bye Lenin!  899
 ❏ Good Morning, Vietnam  743
 ❏ Good, the Bad, and the Ugly, The   

448
 ❏ Goodbye, Children  733
 ❏ Goodfellas  778
 ❏ Gospel According to St. Matthew, 

The  429
 ❏ Graduate, The  460
 ❏ Grand Budapest Hotel, The  937
 ❏ Grand Illusion  134
 ❏ Grapes of Wrath, The  162
 ❏ Grave of the Fireflies  758
 ❏ Gravity  921
 ❏ Grease  636
 ❏ Great Beauty, The  922
 ❏ Great Escape, The  412
 ❏ Great Expectations  216
 ❏ Great Train Robbery, The  23
 ❏ Great White Silence, The  45
 ❏ Greed  46
 ❏ Groundhog Day  815
 ❏ Guling jie shaonian sha ren shijian  

789
 ❏ Gun Crazy  236
 ❏ Gunfight at the OK Corral  330
 ❏ Gunga Din  153
 ❏ Guys and Dolls  309

H
 ❏ Hable con ella  896
 ❏ Halloween  629
 ❏ Hana-Bi  860
 ❏ Hannah and Her Sisters  722
 ❏ Hanyeo  373
 ❏ Happiness  871
 ❏ Hard Day’s Night, A  425
 ❏ Harder They Come, The  569
 ❏ Harold and Maude  526
 ❏ Haunting, The  414
 ❏ Häxan  40
 ❏ Head-On  900
 ❏ Heartbreak Kid, The  547

14



 ❏ Hearts of Darkness: A Filmmaker’s 
Apocalypse  801

 ❏ Heat  843
 ❏ Heaven and Earth Magic  392
 ❏ Heavenly Creatures  823
 ❏ Heiress, The  239
 ❏ Hell or High Water  935
 ❏ Henry V  195
 ❏ Henry: Portrait of a Serial Killer  782
 ❏ High Noon  269
 ❏ High Plains Drifter  553
 ❏ High School  482
 ❏ High Sierra  170
 ❏ High Society  323
 ❏ Hill 24 Doesn’t Answer  304
 ❏ Hills Have Eyes, The  626
 ❏ Hired Hand, The  522
 ❏ Hiroshima mon amour  352
 ❏ His Girl Friday  158
 ❏ Hitlerjunge Salomon  785
 ❏ Hold Me While I’m Naked  442
 ❏ Hole, The  366
 ❏ Hong gao liang  746
 ❏ Hoop Dreams  828
 ❏ Horí, má panenko  470
 ❏ Horse Thief, The  732
 ❏ Hotaru no haka  758
 ❏ Hôtel Terminus: Klaus Barbie et son 

temps  748
 ❏ Hotel Terminus: The Life and Times of 

Klaus Barbie  748
 ❏ Hour of the Wolf  483
 ❏ House Is Black, The  404
 ❏ Housemaid, The  373
 ❏ How Green Was My Valley  171
 ❏ Hsi yen  817
 ❏ Hsia nu  495
 ❏ Hsimeng jensheng  810
 ❏ Hud  405
 ❏ Hurt Locker, The  910
 ❏ Hustler, The  385

I
 ❏ I Am a Fugitive from a Chain Gang  93
 ❏ I, Daniel Blake  941
 ❏ I Know Where I’m Going!  201
 ❏ Ice Storm, The  859
 ❏ Idi i smotri  708
 ❏ If….  480
 ❏ Ikiru  267
 ❏ Il buono, il brutto, il cattivo  448
 ❏ Il conformista  503
 ❏ Il deserto rosso  417
 ❏ Il gattopardo  406
 ❏ Il giardino dei Finzi-Contini  517
 ❏ Il vangelo secondo Matteo  429
 ❏ In a Lonely Place  253
 ❏ In the Heat of the Night  469

 ❏ In the Mood for Love  884
 ❏ In the Realm of the Senses  609
 ❏ In the Year of the Pig  499
 ❏ Inception  914
 ❏ Incredible Shrinking Man, The  330
 ❏ Independence Day  859
 ❏ India Song  599
 ❏ Intolerance  28
 ❏ Invasion of the Body Snatchers  321
 ❏ It Happened One Night  115
 ❏ It’s a Gift  112
 ❏ It’s a Wonderful Life  212
 ❏ Ivan Groznyj I i II  199
 ❏ Ivan the Terrible, Parts I and II  199

J
 ❏ Jackie  937
 ❏ Jalsaghar  345
 ❏ Jaws  600
 ❏ Jazz Singer, The  64
 ❏ Jeanne Dielman, 23 quai du 

commerce, 1080 Bruxelles  587
 ❏ Jerk, The  652
 ❏ Jeux interdits  262
 ❏ Jezebel  139
 ❏ JFK  791
 ❏ Johnny Guitar  296
 ❏ Journal d’un curé de campagne  259
 ❏ Jules and Jim  398
 ❏ Jules et Jim  398
 ❏ Juliet of the Spirits  433
 ❏ Jungle Book, The (1967)  471
 ❏ Jungle Book, The (2016)  935
 ❏ Jurassic Park  818

K
 ❏ Keeper of Promises  395
 ❏ Kes  498
 ❏ Khaneh Siah Ast  404
 ❏ Kid Brother, The  65
 ❏ Killer of Sheep  623
 ❏ Killer, The  770
 ❏ Killers, The  211
 ❏ Killing Fields, The  703
 ❏ Killing of a Chinese Bookie, The  603
 ❏ Kind Hearts and Coronets  242
 ❏ King Kong  107
 ❏ King of Comedy, The  694
 ❏ King of New York  780
 ❏ Kingdom, The  835
 ❏ Kippur  886
 ❏ Kiss Me Deadly  308
 ❏ Kiss of the Spider Woman  714
 ❏ Kjærlighetens kjøtere  848
 ❏ Klute  525
 ❏ Körkarlen  34
 ❏ Koyaanisqatsi  692

 ❏ Kramer vs. Kramer  652
 ❏ Kumonosu jo  324

L
 ❏ L.A. Confidential  861
 ❏ L’âge d’or  80
 ❏ L’albero degli zoccoli  630
 ❏ L’année dernière à Marienbad  388
 ❏ L’argent  685
 ❏ L’Atalante  116
 ❏ L’avventura  369
 ❏ L’eclisse  395
 ❏ L’uccello dalle piume di cristallo  511
 ❏ La Battaglia di Algeri  434
 ❏ La belle et la bête  210
 ❏ La belle noiseuse  788
 ❏ La dolce vita  364
 ❏ La double vie de Véronique  798
 ❏ La femme du boulanger  141
 ❏ La grande bellezza  922
 ❏ La grande illusion  134
 ❏ La jetée  380
 ❏ La La Land  934
 ❏ La maman et la putain  552
 ❏ La maschera del demonio  378
 ❏ La notte  383
 ❏ La notte di San Lorenzo  683
 ❏ La nuit américaine  561
 ❏ La passion de Jeanne d’Arc  68
 ❏ La planète sauvage  569
 ❏ La règle du jeu  157
 ❏ La roue  42
 ❏ La souriante Madame Beudet  35
 ❏ La strada  286
 ❏ La strategia del ragno  507
 ❏ La vie d’Adèle—Chapitres 1 et 2  923
 ❏ Ladies Man, The  385
 ❏ Ladri di biciclette  223
 ❏ Lady Eve, The  169
 ❏ Lady from Shanghai, The  230
 ❏ Lady Vanishes, The  144
 ❏ Ladykillers, The  311
 ❏ Lan feng zheng  809
 ❏ Land Without Bread  108
 ❏ Las hurdes  108
 ❏ Last Chants for a Slow Dance  619
 ❏ Last Laugh, The  42
 ❏ Last Metro, The  655
 ❏ Last Picture Show, The  533
 ❏ Last Seduction, The  821
 ❏ Last Tango in Paris  545
 ❏ Last Wave, The  611
 ❏ Last Year at Marienbad  388
 ❏ Låt den rätte komma in  912
 ❏ Laura  191
 ❏ Lavender Hill Mob, The  259
 ❏ Lawrence of Arabia  393

15



 ❏ Le boucher  504
 ❏ Le carosse d’or  269
 ❏ Le chagrin et la pitié  521
 ❏ Le charme discret de la bourgeoisie 543
 ❏ Le consequenze dell’amore  901
 ❏ Le déclin de l’empire américain  727
 ❏ Le dernier métro  655
 ❏ Le jour se lève  152
 ❏ Le mépris  409
 ❏ Le notti di Cabiria  331
 ❏ Le roman d’un tricheur  129
 ❏ Le salaire de la peur  274
 ❏ Le samouraï  464
 ❏ Le souffle au coeur  534
 ❏ Le trou  366
 ❏ Le voyage dans la Lune  20
 ❏ Leopard, The  406
 ❏ Les demoiselles de Rochefort  463
 ❏ Les diaboliques  287
 ❏ Les enfants du paradis  204
 ❏ Les glaneurs et la glaneuse  883
 ❏ Les maîtres fous  304
 ❏ Les parapluies de Cherbourg  426
 ❏ Les quatre cents coups  350
 ❏ Les roseaux sauvages  821
 ❏ Les vacances de M. Hulot  272
 ❏ Les vampires  27
 ❏ Les yeux sans visage  362
 ❏ Let the Right One In  912
 ❏ Letjat zhuravli  332
 ❏ Letter from an Unknown Woman  224
 ❏ Life and Death of Colonel Blimp, The  187
 ❏ Life of Émile Zola, The  139
 ❏ Limite  83
 ❏ Lincoln  919
 ❏ Lion King, The  820
 ❏ Little Big Man  510
 ❏ Little Caesar  77
 ❏ Lives of Others, The  909
 ❏ Local Hero  694
 ❏ Lola  382
 ❏ Lola Montès  297
 ❏ Lola Rennt  868
 ❏ Lolita  391
 ❏ Lone Star  857
 ❏ Long Goodbye, The  557
 ❏ Lord of the Rings, The  892
 ❏ Los olvidados  252
 ❏ Lost Weekend, The  203
 ❏ Louisiana Story  235
 ❏ Loulou  659
 ❏ Love Me Tonight  94
 ❏ Lucía  498

M
 ❏ M  90
 ❏ M*A*S*H  512

 ❏ Ma nuit chez maud  502
 ❏ Mad Masters, The  304
 ❏ Mad Max  650
 ❏ Mad Max: Fury Road  932
 ❏ Madame de . . .  273
 ❏ Magnificent Ambersons, The  178
 ❏ Magnolia  877
 ❏ Make Way for Tomorrow  133
 ❏ Maltese Falcon, The  174
 ❏ Man Bites Dog  808
 ❏ Man Escaped, A  320
 ❏ Man in Grey, The  188
 ❏ Man of Iron  668
 ❏ Man of Marble  620
 ❏ Man of the West  339
 ❏ Man Who Fell to Earth, The  601
 ❏ Man Who Had His Hair Cut Short, The  435
 ❏ Man Who Shot Liberty Valance, The  392
 ❏ Man with a Movie Camera, The  72
 ❏ Man with the Golden Arm, The  308
 ❏ Manchester by the Sea  940
 ❏ Manchurian Candidate, The  399
 ❏ Manhattan  645
 ❏ Manhunter  720
 ❏ Manila in the Claws of Brightness  593
 ❏ Marketa Lazarová  469
 ❏ Marnie  420
 ❏ Marriage of Maria Braun, The  638
 ❏ Marty  301
 ❏ Mary Poppins  428
 ❏ Masculin, féminin  453
 ❏ Masculine-Feminine  453
 ❏ Masque of the Red Death, The  421
 ❏ Matrix, The  882
 ❏ Matter of Life and Death, A  215
 ❏ Maynila: Sa mga kuko ng liwanag  593
 ❏ McCabe and Mrs. Miller  520
 ❏ Mean Streets  562
 ❏ Méditerranée  413
 ❏ Meet Me in St. Louis  192
 ❏ Még kér a nép  529
 ❏ Meghe Dhaka Tara  373
 ❏ Memento  889
 ❏ Memorias del subdesarrollo  481
 ❏ Memories of Underdevelopment  481
 ❏ Meshes of the Afternoon  187
 ❏ Metropolis  57
 ❏ Midnight Cowboy  493
 ❏ Midnight Song  135
 ❏ Mildred Pierce  200
 ❏ Mirror, The  577
 ❏ Mishima: A Life in Four Chapters  709
 ❏ Modern Times  125
 ❏ Mon oncle 3 46
 ❏ Mondo cane  396
 ❏ Money  685
 ❏ Monsieur Verdoux  222

 ❏ Monty Python and the Holy Grail  590
 ❏ Monty Python’s Life of Brian  641
 ❏ Mooladé  902
 ❏ Moonlight  943
 ❏ Moonstruck  744
 ❏ Mortal Storm, The  163
 ❏ Mother and the Whore, The  552
 ❏ Mother India  335
 ❏ Mr. Deeds Goes to Town  127
 ❏ Mr. Hulot’s Holiday  272
 ❏ Mr. Smith Goes to Washington  145
 ❏ Mrs. Miniver  181
 ❏ Mujeres al borde de un ataque de 

nervios  749
 ❏ Muppet Movie, The  649
 ❏ Murder, My Sweet  198
 ❏ Muriel’s Wedding  826
 ❏ Murmur of the Heart  534
 ❏ Music Room, The  345
 ❏ Mutiny on the Bounty  119
 ❏ My Brilliant Career  637
 ❏ My Darling Clementine  218
 ❏ My Fair Lady  417
 ❏ My Left Foot  769
 ❏ My Life to Live  390
 ❏ My Man Godfrey  128
 ❏ My Night at Maud’s  502
 ❏ My Own Private Idaho  794
 ❏ My Uncle  346

N
 ❏ Naked Gun, The  757
 ❏ Naked Spur, The  275
 ❏ Nanook of the North  36
 ❏ Napoléon  65
 ❏ Narayama bushi-ko  688
 ❏ Nashville  595
 ❏ Natural Born Killers  826
 ❏ Natural, The  698
 ❏ Neco z alenky  752
 ❏ Nema-ye nazdik  779
 ❏ Network  604
 ❏ Night and Fog  306
 ❏ Night at the Opera, A  121
 ❏ Night of the Hunter, The  310
 ❏ Night of the Living Dead  486
 ❏ Night of the Shooting Stars, The  683
 ❏ Night, The  383
 ❏ Nightmare on Elm Street, A  700
 ❏ Nights of Cabiria, The  331
 ❏ Ninotchka  153
 ❏ No Fear, No Die  777
 ❏ No Man’s Land  893
 ❏ North by Northwest  349
 ❏ Nosferatu, a Symphony of Terror  39
 ❏ Nosferatu, eine Symphonie des 

Grauens  39

16



 ❏ Nosferatu: Phantom der Nacht  639
 ❏ Nosferatu: Phantom of the Night  639
 ❏ Nostalgia de la luz  916
 ❏ Nostalgia for the Light  916
 ❏ Notorious  219
 ❏ Now, Voyager  176
 ❏ Nuit et brouillard  306
 ❏ Nuovo cinema paradiso  757
 ❏ Nutty Professor, The  411

O
 ❏ O pagador de promessas  395
 ❏ O Thiassos  588
 ❏ Obchod na korze  430
 ❏ October  62
 ❏ Odd Man Out  222
 ❏ Ôdishon  878
 ❏ Oklahoma  312
 ❏ Oktyabr  62
 ❏ Oldboy  898
 ❏ Oldeuboi  898
 ❏ Olympia  143
 ❏ On the Town  244
 ❏ On the Waterfront  284
 ❏ Once Upon a Time in America  695
 ❏ Once Upon a Time in China  793
 ❏ Once Upon a Time in the West  475
 ❏ One and a Two, A  886
 ❏ One Flew Over the Cuckoo’s Nest   

592
 ❏ Onibaba  428
 ❏ Only Angels Have Wings  148
 ❏ Open City  207
 ❏ Open Your Eyes  863
 ❏ Ordet  300
 ❏ Ordinary People  653
 ❏ Orfeu negro  353
 ❏ Orphans of the Storm  33
 ❏ Orphée  245
 ❏ Orpheus  245
 ❏ Osama  900
 ❏ Ossessione  190
 ❏ Ostre sledované vlaky  466
 ❏ Our Hospitality  41
 ❏ Out of Africa  709
 ❏ Out of the Past  221
 ❏ Outlaw Josey Wales, The  603
 ❏ Ox-Bow Incident, The  186

P
 ❏ Paisà  209
 ❏ Paisan  209
 ❏ Paleface, The  229
 ❏ Palm Beach Story, The  176
 ❏ Pan’s Labyrinth  907
 ❏ Pandora and the Flying Dutchman  256
 ❏ Pandora’s Box  74

 ❏ Papillon  557
 ❏ Paranormal Activity  908
 ❏ Paris, Texas  699
 ❏ Pasazerka  403
 ❏ Passage to India, A  702
 ❏ Passenger  403
 ❏ Passion of Joan of Arc, The  68
 ❏ Pat Garrett and Billy the Kid  566
 ❏ Pather Panchali  298
 ❏ Paths of Glory  324
 ❏ Patton  511
 ❏ Peeping Tom  377
 ❏ Peking Opera Blues  727
 ❏ Pépé le Moko  132
 ❏ Performance  513
 ❏ Persona  450
 ❏ Peter Ibbertson  124
 ❏ Phantom Carriage, The  34
 ❏ Phantom of the Opera, The  49
 ❏ Phenix City Story, The  307
 ❏ Philadelphia  810
 ❏ Philadelphia Story, The  161
 ❏ Piano, The  816
 ❏ Pickpocket  351
 ❏ Pickup on South Street  270
 ❏ Picnic at Hanging Rock  599
 ❏ Pier, The  380
 ❏ Pierrot Goes Wild  441
 ❏ Pierrot le fou  441
 ❏ Pink Flamingos  549
 ❏ Pinocchio  165
 ❏ Place in the Sun, A  258
 ❏ Planet of the Apes  477
 ❏ Platoon  725
 ❏ Player, The  803
 ❏ Playtime  458
 ❏ Point Blank  462
 ❏ Poltergeist  672
 ❏ Popiól i diament  342
 ❏ Postman Always Rings Twice, The  209
 ❏ Potomok Chingis-Khana  70
 ❏ Prapancha Pash  71
 ❏ Pretty Woman  780
 ❏ Prima della rivoluzione  421
 ❏ Princess Bride, The  739
 ❏ Prizzi’s Honor  706
 ❏ Producers, The  489
 ❏ Project A, Part II  735
 ❏ Psycho  374
 ❏ Public Enemy, The  89
 ❏ Pulp Fiction  824
 ❏ Puppetmaster, The  810
 ❏ Purple Rose of Cairo, The  716

Q
 ❏ Queen Christina  109
 ❏ Question of Silence, A  683

 ❏ Quiet Earth, The  715
 ❏ Quiet Man, The  261

R
 ❏ Raging Bull  660
 ❏ Raiders of the Lost Ark   

664
 ❏ Rain Man  761
 ❏ Raise the Red Lantern  799
 ❏ Raising Arizona  734
 ❏ Ran  710
 ❏ Rapture, The  788
 ❏ Rashomon  246
 ❏ Real Life  642
 ❏ Rear Window  288
 ❏ Rebecca  160
 ❏ Rebel Without a Cause  302
 ❏ Reckless Moment, The  237
 ❏ Red and the White, The   

459
 ❏ Red Desert, The  417
 ❏ Red Psalm  529
 ❏ Red River  228
 ❏ Red Shoes, The  233
 ❏ Red Sorghum  746
 ❏ Reds  669
 ❏ Rekopis znaleziony w saragossie  

439
 ❏ Report  453
 ❏ Repulsion  440
 ❏ Requiem for a Dream  887
 ❏ Reservoir Dogs  804
 ❏ Return of the Jedi  688
 ❏ Revenant, The  929
 ❏ Revenge of the Vampire/Black 

Sunday  378
 ❏ Ride Lonesome  353
 ❏ Riget  835
 ❏ Right Stuff, The  686
 ❏ Ring  870
 ❏ Rio Bravo  360
 ❏ Rio Grande  249
 ❏ Road, The  286
 ❏ RoboCop  764
 ❏ Rocco and His Brothers  367
 ❏ Rocco e i suoi fratelli  367
 ❏ Rocky  608
 ❏ Rocky Horror Picture Show, The   

586
 ❏ Roger & Me  774
 ❏ Roma, città aperta  207
 ❏ Roman Holiday  282
 ❏ Romper Stomper  802
 ❏ Room with a View, A  720
 ❏ Rope  231
 ❏ Rosemary’s Baby  478
 ❏ Rules of the Game, The  157
 ❏ Run Lola Run  868

17



 ❏ Rushmore  869
 ❏ Russian Ark  894
 ❏ Russkiy kovcheg  894

S
 ❏ S’en fout la mort  777
 ❏ Safe  843
 ❏ Salò o le centoventi giornate di 

sodoma  596
 ❏ Saló, or the 120 Days of Sodom  596
 ❏ Salt of the Earth  297
 ❏ Salvador  724
 ❏ Sanma No Aji  390
 ❏ Sans soleil  687
 ❏ Sans toi ni loi  717
 ❏ Sanshô dayû  294
 ❏ Sanshô the Bailiff  294
 ❏ Saragossa Manuscript, The  439
 ❏ Såsom i en spegel  386
 ❏ Sátántangó  829
 ❏ Saturday Night and Sunday Morning 

363
 ❏ Saturday Night Fever  621
 ❏ Satyricon  490
 ❏ Saul fia  938
 ❏ Saving Private Ryan  866
 ❏ Sayat nova  492
 ❏ Scarface  693
 ❏ Scarface: The Shame of a Nation  98
 ❏ Schindler’s List  813
 ❏ Scorpio Rising  419
 ❏ Scream  854
 ❏ Se7en  838
 ❏ Searchers, The  316
 ❏ Seconds  447
 ❏ Secret Beyond the Door, The  226
 ❏ Secrets & Lies  855
 ❏ Sedmikrasky  446
 ❏ Sen to chihiro no kamikakushi  892
 ❏ Senso  290
 ❏ Sergeant York  168
 ❏ Serpico  559
 ❏ Servant, The  403
 ❏ Seven Samurai, The  293
 ❏ Seventh Seal, The  326
 ❏ Seventh Victim, The  188
 ❏ Sex, Lies, and Videotape  775
 ❏ Shadow of a Doubt  189
 ❏ Shadows  357
 ❏ Shadows of Forgotten Ancestors  418
 ❏ Shaft  531
 ❏ Shame  488
 ❏ Shane  283
 ❏ Shanghai Express  95
 ❏ Shao Lin san shi liu fang  637
 ❏ Shaolin Master Killer  637
 ❏ Shawshank Redemption, The  833
 ❏ She Done Him Wrong  103

 ❏ She’s Gotta Have It  723
 ❏ Shen nu  113
 ❏ Sherlock, Jr.  44
 ❏ Sherman’s March  731
 ❏ Shichinin no samurai  293
 ❏ Shine  853
 ❏ Shining, The  656
 ❏ Shoah  718
 ❏ Shock Corridor  409
 ❏ Shoot the Piano Player  376
 ❏ Shop on Main Street, The  430
 ❏ Short Cuts  811
 ❏ Silence of the Lambs, The  796
 ❏ Silver Lode  291
 ❏ Singin’ in the Rain  264
 ❏ Sinnui yauman  739
 ❏ Sins of Lola Montes, The  297
 ❏ Sixth Sense, The  876
 ❏ Skammen  488
 ❏ Slacker  792
 ❏ Sleeper  563
 ❏ Sleeping Dogs  619
 ❏ Sleuth  550
 ❏ Smiles of a Summer Night  312
 ❏ Smiling Madame Beudet, The  35
 ❏ Smoke  839
 ❏ Smultronstället  329
 ❏ Snake Pit, The  230
 ❏ Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs 136
 ❏ Social Network, The  915
 ❏ Solaris  540
 ❏ Soldaat van Oranje  625
 ❏ Soldier of Orange  625
 ❏ Solyaris  540
 ❏ Some Came Running  347
 ❏ Some Like it Hot  348
 ❏ Sommaren med Monika  270
 ❏ Sommarnattens leende  312
 ❏ Son of Saul  930
 ❏ Sons of the Desert  109
 ❏ Sorrow and the Pity, The  521
 ❏ Sound of Music, The  435
 ❏ Spartacus  371
 ❏ Spider’s Stratagem, The  507
 ❏ Spirit of the Beehive, The  568
 ❏ Spirited Away  892
 ❏ Splendor in the Grass  379
 ❏ Spoorloos  751
 ❏ Spotlight  931
 ❏ Spring in a Small Town  227
 ❏ Stachka  43
 ❏ Stagecoach  146
 ❏ Stalker  640
 ❏ Stand by Me  731
 ❏ Star Is Born, A  287
 ❏ Star Wars  612
 ❏ Star Wars: The Force Awakens  928

 ❏ Steamboat Bill, Jr.  70
 ❏ Stella Dallas  135
 ❏ Sting, The  551
 ❏ Storm over Asia  70
 ❏ Story of a Cheat, The  129
 ❏ Story of the Late Chrysanthemums, 

The  158
 ❏ Stranger than Paradise  704
 ❏ Strangers on a Train  254
 ❏ Straw Dogs  535
 ❏ Streetcar Named Desire, A  255
 ❏ Strictly Ballroom  802
 ❏ Strike  43
 ❏ Stroszek  614
 ❏ Subarnarekha  442
 ❏ Sullivan’s Travels  172
 ❏ Summer with Monika  270
 ❏ Suna no onna  418
 ❏ Sunless  687
 ❏ Sunrise  58
 ❏ Sunset Blvd.  251
 ❏ Superfly  551
 ❏ Suspiria  618
 ❏ Sweet Hereafter, The  863
 ❏ Sweet Smell of Success  334
 ❏ Sweet Sweetback’s Baadasssss Song 

532
 ❏ Swing Time  126

T
 ❏ Ta’m e guilass  865
 ❏ Tabu  84
 ❏ Tale of the Wind, A  756
 ❏ Tale of Winter, A  805
 ❏ Tales of Ugetsu  278
 ❏ Talk to Her  896
 ❏ Tampopo  732
 ❏ Tangerine  930
 ❏ Targets  487
 ❏ Taste of Cherry  865
 ❏ Taxi Driver  606
 ❏ Ten Commandments, The  315
 ❏ Terminator 2: Judgment Day  797
 ❏ Terminator, The  697
 ❏ Terms of Endearment  689
 ❏ Terra em transe  468
 ❏ Texas Chain Saw Massacre, The  581
 ❏ Thelma & Louise  793
 ❏ There Will Be Blood  909
 ❏ Thief of Bagdad, The  48
 ❏ Thin Blue Line, The  753
 ❏ Thin Man, The  118
 ❏ Thin Red Line, The  872
 ❏ Thing, The  681
 ❏ Things to Come  130
 ❏ Third Man, The  240
 ❏ Thirty-Two Short Films About Glenn 

Gould  817

18



 ❏ This Is Spinal Tap  701
 ❏ Three Colors: Blue  814
 ❏ Three Colors: Red  825
 ❏ Three Kings  877
 ❏ Three Lives and Only One Death  853
 ❏ Throne of Blood  324
 ❏ Through a Glass Darkly  386
 ❏ Through the Olive Trees  832
 ❏ Throw of Dice, A  71
 ❏ Time to Live and the Time to Die, 

The  706
 ❏ Tin Drum, The  651
 ❏ Tini zabutykh predkiv  418
 ❏ Tirez sur le pianiste  376
 ❏ Titanic  864
 ❏ To Be or Not to Be  177
 ❏ To Have and Have Not  194
 ❏ To Kill a Mockingbird  394
 ❏ To Live  267
 ❏ Todo sobre mi madre  881
 ❏ Tokyo Olympiad  432
 ❏ Tokyo Orimpikku  432
 ❏ Tokyo Story  276
 ❏ Tong nien wang shi  706
 ❏ Tongues Untied  798
 ❏ Toni Erdmann  938
 ❏ Too Early, Too Late  672
 ❏ Tootsie  677
 ❏ Top Gun  730
 ❏ Top Hat  124
 ❏ Total Recall  783
 ❏ Touch of Evil  337
 ❏ Touch of Zen, A  495
 ❏ Towering Inferno, The  572
 ❏ Toy Story trilogy  844
 ❏ Trainspotting  849
 ❏ Traveling Players, The  588
 ❏ Treasure of the Sierra Madre, The  234
 ❏ Tree of Wooden Clogs, The  630
 ❏ Trip to the Moon, A  20
 ❏ Tristana  502
 ❏ Triumph des Willens  111
 ❏ Triumph of the Will  111
 ❏ Trois couleurs: Bleu  814
 ❏ Trois couleurs: Rouge  825
 ❏ Trois vies & une seule mort  853
 ❏ Trouble in Paradise  96
 ❏ Trust  777
 ❏ Tsotsi  905
 ❏ Turkish Delight  567
 ❏ Turks Fruit  567
 ❏ Two or Three Things I Know About 

Her  454
 ❏ Two-Lane Blacktop  536

U
 ❏ Ucho  508
 ❏ Ugetsu monogatari  278

 ❏ Ukigusa  361
 ❏ Ultimo tango a Parigi  545
 ❏ Umberto D  268
 ❏ Umbrellas of Cherbourg, The  426
 ❏ Un chien andalou  69
 ❏ Un condamné à mort s’est échappé 

ou le vent souffle où il veut  320
 ❏ Unbelievable Truth, The  774
 ❏ Under the Shadow  939
 ❏ Underground  840
 ❏ Une histoire de vent  756
 ❏ Une partie de campagne  132
 ❏ Unforgiven  806
 ❏ Unknown, The  61
 ❏ Untouchables, The  745
 ❏ Unvanquished, The  333
 ❏ Up in Smoke  635
 ❏ Usual Suspects, The  847

V
 ❏ Vagabond  717
 ❏ Vampire, The  92
 ❏ Vampyr  92
 ❏ Vanishing, The  751
 ❏ Vargtimmen  483
 ❏ Vérités et mensonges  566
 ❏ Vertigo  341
 ❏ Viaggio in Italia  279
 ❏ Victoria  933
 ❏ Vidas secas  408
 ❏ Videodrome  691
 ❏ Vinyl  439
 ❏ Viridiana  379
 ❏ Viskingar och rop  542
 ❏ Vivre sa vie: Film en douze tableaux 

390
 ❏ Viy  474
 ❏ Voskhozhdeniye  609
 ❏ Voyage in Italy  279

W
 ❏ W.R.: Misterije organizma  523
 ❏ W.R.: Mysteries of the Organism  523
 ❏ Wadjda  920
 ❏ Wages of Fear  274
 ❏ Wake in Fright  536
 ❏ Walkabout  524
 ❏ Wall Street  744
 ❏ Wall, The  591
 ❏ Wanda  534
 ❏ Wanton Countess, The  290
 ❏ War Game, The  432
 ❏ Wavelength  465
 ❏ Wedding Banquet, The  817
 ❏ Week End  463
 ❏ West Side Story  384
 ❏ What Ever Happened to Baby Jane?  

399

 ❏ Wheel, The  42
 ❏ When Harry Met Sally  765
 ❏ Whisky Galore!  243
 ❏ White Balloon, The  839
 ❏ White Heat  237
 ❏ Who Framed Roger Rabbit  759
 ❏ Who’s Afraid of Virginia Woolf?  443
 ❏ Wicker Man, The  558
 ❏ Wild Bunch, The  501
 ❏ Wild Reeds, The  821
 ❏ Wild Strawberries  329
 ❏ Willy Wonka and the Chocolate 

Factory  521
 ❏ Winchester ‘73  249
 ❏ Wings of Desire  736
 ❏ Within Our Gates  33
 ❏ Withnail and I  738
 ❏ Wizard of Oz, The  154
 ❏ Wo hu cang long  890
 ❏ Wolf Man, The  169
 ❏ Woman in the Dunes  418
 ❏ Woman Under the Influence, A  580
 ❏ Women on the Verge of a Nervous 

Breakdown  749
 ❏ Wong fei-hung  793
 ❏ Woodstock  515
 ❏ World of Apu, The  359
 ❏ Written on the Wind  319
 ❏ Wrong Man, The  323
 ❏ Wuthering Heights  144

X
 ❏ Xiao cheng zhi chun  227
 ❏ Xich lo  841

Y
 ❏ Yankee Doodle Dandy  180
 ❏ Ye ban ge sheng  135
 ❏ Yeelen  735
 ❏ Yi yi  886
 ❏ Yol  673
 ❏ Young and the Damned, The  252
 ❏ Young Frankenstein  580
 ❏ Young Girls of Rochefort, The  463
 ❏ Yuen ling-yuk  807
 ❏ Yukinojo henge  413

Z
 ❏ Z  489
 ❏ Zabriskie Point  512
 ❏ Zangiku Monogatari  158
 ❏ Zemlya  82
 ❏ Zerkalo  577
 ❏ Zéro de conduite  106
 ❏ Zero for Conduct  106
 ❏ Zero Kelvin  848
 ❏ Zire darakhatan zeyton  832
 ❏ Zu Früh, Zu Spät  672

19



Le voyage dans la lune  Georges Méliès, 1902 
A Trip to the Moon
When thinking about A Trip to the Moon, one’s mind is quickly captured 
by the original and mythic idea of early filmmaking as an art whose “rules” 
were established in the very process of its production. This French movie 
was released in 1902 and represents a revolution for the time, given its 
length (around fourteen minutes), as compared to the more common 
two-minute short films then being produced. 

A Trip to the Moon directly reflects the theatrical personality of its 
director, Georges Méliès, whose past as a theater actor and magician 
influenced the making of the movie. The film boldly experiments  
with some of the most famous cinematic techniques, such as 
superimpositions, dissolves, and editing practices that would be widely 
used later on. Despite the simplicity of its special effects, the film is 
generally considered the first example of science-fiction cinema. It offers 
many elements characteristic of the genre—a spaceship, the discovery 
of a new frontier—and establishes most of its conventions.

The movie opens with a Scientific Congress in which Professor 
Barbenfouillis (played by Méliès himself ) tries to convince his colleagues 
to take part in a trip to explore the moon. Once his plan is accepted, the 
expedition is organized and the scientists embark in a space ship. The 
missile-like vessel lands right in the eye of the moon, which is represented 
as an anthropomorphic being. Once on the surface, the scientists soon 
meet the hostile inhabitants, the Selenites, who take them to their King. 
After discovering that the enemies easily disappear in a cloud of smoke 
with the simple touch of an umbrella, the French men manage to escape 
and return to Earth. They fall into the ocean and explore the abyss until 
they are finally rescued and honored in Paris as heroes.

Méliès’s movie deserves a legitimate place among the milestones in 
world cinema history. Despite its surreal look, A Trip to the Moon is an 
entertaining and groundbreaking film able to combine the tricks of the 
theater with the infinite possibilities of the cinematic medium. Méliès 
was an orchestrator more than a director; he also contributed to the 
movie as a writer, actor, producer, set and costume designer, and 
cinematographer, creating special effects that were considered 
spectacular at the time. The first true science-fiction film cannot be 
missed by a spectator looking for the origin of those conventions that 
would later influence the entire genre and its most famous entries.

In a more general sense, A Trip to the Moon can be regarded as the 
movie that established the major difference between cinematic fiction 
and nonfiction. At a time when filmmaking mostly portrayed daily life 
(such as in the films of the Lumière brothers at the end of the 19th century), 
Méliès was able to offer a fantasy constructed for pure entertainment. 
He opened the doors to future film artists by visually expressing his 
creativity in a way utterly uncommon to movies of the time.  CFe

20

“Méliès actually was 
a magician . . . And 

so he understood the 
possibilities of the 

motion picture camera.”
Martin Scorsese, 2012

The lively Selenites were played  
by acrobats from Paris’s famous 

music hall, the Folies Bergère.

France (Star) 14m Silent BW   
Producer Georges Méliès   

Screenplay Georges Méliès, from the novel 
De la Terre à la Lune by Jules Verne  

Photography Michaut, Lucien Tainguy   
Cast Victor André, Bleuette Bernon, Brunnet, 

Jeanne d’Alcy,  Henri Delannoy, Depierre, 
Farjaut, Kelm, Georges Méliès

19
02

i



1



1



The Great Train Robbery  Edwin S. Porter, 1903 
Most historians regard The Great Train Robbery as the first Western, 
initiating a genre that, in a few short years, became the most popular  
in American cinema. Made by the Edison Company in November  
1903, The Great Train Robbery was the most commercially successful 
film of the pre-Griffith period of American cinema and spawned a  
host of imitations.

What is exceptional about Edwin S. Porter’s film is the degree of 
narrative sophistication, given the early date. There are over a dozen 
separate scenes, each further developing the story. In the opening 
scene, two masked robbers force a telegraph operator to send a false 
message so that the train will make an unscheduled stop. In the next 
scene, bandits board the train. The robbers enter the mail car, and, 
after a fight, open the safe. In the following scene, two robbers 
overpower the driver and fireman of the train and throw one of them 
off. Next, the robbers stop the train and hold up the passengers. One 
runs away and is shot. The robbers then escape aboard the engine, 
and in the subsequent scene we see them mount horses and ride off. 
Meanwhile, the telegraph operator on the train sends a message 
calling for assistance. In a saloon, a newcomer is being forced to 
dance at gunpoint, but when the message arrives everyone grabs 
their rifles and exits. Cut to the robbers pursued by a posse. There is a 
shoot-out, and the robbers are killed.

There’s one extra shot, the best known in the film, showing one of 
the robbers firing point blank out of the screen. This was, it seems, 
sometimes shown at the start of the film, sometimes at the end. Either 
way, it gave the spectator a sense of being directly in the line of fire.

One actor in The Great Train Robbery was G.M. Anderson (real name 
Max Aronson). Among other parts, he played the passenger who is 
shot. Anderson was shortly to become the first star of Westerns, 
appearing as Bronco Billy in over a hundred films, beginning in 1907.

In later years some have challenged the claim of The Great Train 
Robbery to be regarded as the first Western, on the grounds that it is 
not the first or not a Western. It is certainly true that there are earlier 
films with a Western theme, such as Thomas Edison’s Cripple Creek  
Bar-Room Scene (1899), but they do not have the fully developed 
narrative of Porter’s film. It’s also true that it has its roots both in stage 
plays incorporating spectacular railroad scenes, and in other films  
of daring robberies that weren’t Westerns. Nor can its claim to being  
a true Western be based on authentic locations, because The Great 
Train Robbery was shot on the Delaware and Lackawanna Railroad in 
New Jersey. But train robberies, since the days of Jesse James, had 
been part of Western lore, and other iconic elements such as six-
shooters, cowboy hats, and horses all serve to give the film a genuine 
Western feel.  EB

23

“In every respect we 
consider it absolutely the 

superior of any moving 
picture ever made.”

Edison Company Catalog, 1904

Edwin S. Porter gave future director 
D.W. Griffith his first acting role in 

Rescued from an Eagle’s Nest (1908).

U.S. (Edison) 12m Silent BW (hand-colored)    
Screenplay Scott Marble,  Edwin S. Porter  
Photography Edwin S. Porter, Blair Smith  
Cast A.C. Abadie, Gilbert M. “Bronco Billy” 

Anderson, George Barnes, Walter Cameron, 
Frank Hanaway, Morgan Jones, Tom London, 

Marie Murray, Mary Snow

1903

i



i

The Birth of a Nation  D.W. Griffith, 1915
Simultaneously one of the most revered and most reviled films ever 
made, D.W. Griffith’s The Birth of a Nation is important for the very 
reasons that prompt both of those divergent reactions. In fact, rarely has 
a film so equally deserved such praise and scorn, which in many ways 
raises the film’s estimation not just in the annals of cinema but as an 
essential historic artifact (some might say relic).

Though it was based on Thomas Dixon’s explicitly racist play The 
Clansman: An Historical Romance of the Ku Klux Klan, by many accounts 
Griffith was indifferent to the racist bent of the subject matter. Just how 
complicit that makes him in delivering its ugly message has been cause 
for almost a century of debate. However, there has been no debate 
concerning the film’s technical and artistic merits. Griffith was, as usual, 
more interested in the possibilities of the medium than the message, 
and in this regard he set the standards for modern Hollywood. 

Most overtly, The Birth of a Nation was the first real historical epic, 
proving that even in the silent era audiences were willing to sit through 
a nearly three-hour drama. But with countless artistic innovations, Griffith 
essentially created contemporary film language, and although elements 
of The Birth of a Nation may now seem quaint or dated, virtually every 
film is beholden to it in one way, shape, or form. Griffith introduced the 
use of dramatic close-ups, tracking shots, and other expressive camera 
movements; parallel action sequences, crosscutting, and other editing 
techniques; and even the first orchestral score. It’s a shame all these 
groundbreaking elements were attached to a story of such dubious value.

The first half of the film begins before the Civil War, explaining the 
introduction of slavery to America before jumping into battle. Two 
families, the northern Stonemans and the southern Camerons, are 
introduced. The story is told through these two families and often their 
servants, epitomizing the worst racial stereotypes. As the nation is torn 
apart by war, the slaves and their abolitionist supporters are seen as the 
destructive force behind it all. The film’s racism grows even worse in its 
second half, set during Reconstruction and featuring the rise of the Ku 
Klux Klan, introduced as the picture’s would-be heroes. The fact that 
Griffith jammed a love story in the midst of his recreated race war is 
absolutely audacious. It’s thrilling and disturbing, often at the same time.

The Birth of a Nation is no doubt a powerful piece of propaganda, 
albeit one with a stomach-churning political message. Only the puritanical 
Ku Klux Klan can maintain the unity of the nation, it seems to be saying, 
so is it any wonder that even at the time the film was met with outrage? 
It was protested by the National Association for the Advancement of 
Colored People (NAACP), sparked riots, and later forced Griffith himself 
to answer criticisms with his even more ambitious Intolerance (1916). 
Still, the fact that The Birth of a Nation remains respected and studied to 
this day—despite its subject matter—reveals its lasting importance.  JKl 

24

“It is the biggest thing  
I have undertaken, but  

I shall not be satisfied 
until I do something else 

. . . I am, like all other 
human beings, aiming  

at perfection.”
D.W. Griffith, 1915

Griffith’s movie was the first film to 
be screened in the White House—in 
1915, for President Woodrow Wilson.

U.S. (D.W. Griffith & Epoch) 190m Silent BW  
Producer D.W. Griffith  Screenplay Frank E. 

Woods, D.W. Griffith, from the novel  
The Clansman: An Historical Romance of the 
Ku Klux Klan, the novel The Leopard’s Spots, 

and the play The Clansman by Thomas F. 
Dixon Jr.  Photography G.W. Bitzer   

Music Joseph Carl Breil, D.W. Griffith   
Cast Lillian Gish, Mae Marsh, Henry B. 

Walthall, Miriam Cooper, Mary Alden, Ralph 
Lewis, George Siegmann, Walter Long, 

Robert Harron, Wallace Reid, Joseph 
Henabery, Elmer Clifton, Josephine Crowell, 

Spottiswoode Aitken, George Beranger

19
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Les vampires  Louis Feuillade, 1915
Louis Feuillade’s legendary opus has been cited as a landmark movie 
serial, a precursor of the deep-focus aesthetic later advanced by Jean 
Renoir and Orson Welles, and a close cousin to the surrealist movement, 
but its strongest relationship is to the development of the movie thriller. 
Segmented into ten loosely connected parts that lack cliffhanger 
endings, vary widely in length, and were released at irregular intervals, 
Les vampires falls somewhere between a film series and a film serial. The 
convoluted, often inconsistent plot centers on a flamboyant gang of 
Parisian criminals, the Vampires, and their dauntless opponent, the 
reporter Philippe Guérande (Edouard Mathé).

The Vampires, masters of disguise who often dress in black hoods 
and leotards while carrying out their crimes, are led by four successive 
“Grand Vampires,” each killed off in turn, each faithfully served by the 
vampish Irma Vep (her name an anagram of Vampire), who constitutes the 
heart and soul not only of the Vampires but also of Les vampires itself. 
Portrayed with voluptuous vitality by Musidora, who became a star as a 
result, Irma is the film’s most attractive character, clearly surpassing the 
pallid hero Guérande and his hammy comic sidekick Mazamette (Marcel 
Lévesque). Her charisma undercuts the film’s good-versus-evil theme 
and contributes to its somewhat amoral tone, reinforced by the way the 
good guys and the bad guys often use the same duplicitous methods 
and by the disturbingly ferocious slaughter of the Vampires at the end.

Much like the detective story and the haunted-house thriller, Les 
vampires creates a sturdy-looking world of bourgeois order while also 
undermining it. The thick floors and walls of each château and hotel 
become porous with trap doors and secret panels. Massive fireplaces 
serve as thoroughfares for assassins and thieves, who scurry over Paris 
rooftops and shimmy up and down drainpipes like monkeys. Taxicabs 
bristle with stowaways on their roofs and disclose false floors to eject 
fugitives into convenient manholes. At one point, the hero unsuspectingly 
sticks his head out the window of his upper-story apartment, only to be 
looped around the neck by a wire snare wielded from below; he is yanked 
down to the street, bundled into a large basket, and whisked off by a 
taxi. In another scene, a wall with a fireplace opens up to disgorge a 
cannon, which slides to the window and lobs shells into a nearby cabaret.

Reinforcing this atmosphere of capricious stability, the plot is built 
around a series of tour de force reversals, involving deceptive appearances 
on both sides of the law: “dead” characters come to life, pillars of society 
(a priest, a judge, a policeman) turn out to be Vampires, and Vampires 
are revealed to be law enforcers operating in disguise. It is Feuillade’s 
ability to create, on an extensive and imaginative scale, a double world—
at once weighty and dreamlike, recognizably familiar and excitingly 
strange—that is of central importance to the evolution of the movie 
thriller and marks him as a major pioneer of the form.  MR

27

“A film is not a sermon 
nor a conference . . .  

but a means to entertain 
the eyes and the spirit.”

Louis Feuillade, 1920

Feuillade was a highly prolific  
movie director, with more than  

700 films to his name.

France (Gaumont) 440m Silent BW    
Screenplay Louis Feuillade  Music Robert 

Israel  Cast Musidora, Edouard Mathé, Marcel 
Lévesque, Jean Aymé, Fernand Herrmann, 

Stacia Napierkowska

1915



i

Intolerance  D.W. Griffith, 1916 
Perhaps in part a retort to those who found fault with the racial politics 
in The Birth of a Nation (1915), D.W. Griffith was equally concerned to 
argue against film censorship. This was addressed more directly in the 
pamphlet issued at the time of Intolerance’s exhibition, The Rise and Fall 
of Free Speech in America. Griffith’s design for this film, which he finalized 
in the weeks following the release of his earlier epic production, is to 
juxtapose four stories from different periods of history that illustrate 
“love’s struggle throughout the ages.” These include a selection of  
events from the life of Jesus; a tale from ancient Babylon, whose king is 
betrayed by those who resent his rejection of religious sectarianism; the 
story of the St. Bartholomew’s Day Massacre of French Protestants by King 
Charles  IX of France on the perfidious advice of his mother; and a 
modern story in which a young boy, wrongly convicted of the murder 
of a companion, is rescued from execution at the last minute by the 
intervention of his beloved, who gains a pardon from the governor. These 
stories are not presented in series. Instead, Griffith cuts from one to 
another and often introduces suspenseful crosscutting within the stories 
as well. This revolutionary structure proved too difficult for most filmgoers 
at the time, who may also have been put off by Intolerance’s length. 
Griffith may have invested as much as $2 million in the project, but the 
film never came close to making back its costs, even when recut and 
released as two features, The Fall of Babylon and The Mother and the Law.

The enormous sets for the Babylon story, which long afterward 
remained a Hollywood landmark, were dressed with 3,000 extras. These 
production values were equaled by the sumptuous costumes and 
elaborate crowd scenes of the French story. Though others wrote some 
title cards, Griffith himself was responsible for the complicated script, 
which he continued to work on as production progressed. His stock 
company of actors performed admirably in the various roles. Constance 
Talmadge is particularly effective as the “Mountain Girl” in love with the 
ill-fated Prince Belshazzar (Alfred Paget) in the Babylon story, as are Mae 
Marsh and Bobby Harron as the reunited lovers in the modern story.

As in The Birth of a Nation, Griffith uses the structures of Victorian 
melodrama to make his political points. Intolerance is examined through 
the lens of tragic love, which lends emotional energy and pathos to the 
narratives. In the Babylonian story, Belshazzar and his beloved Attarea 
(Seena Owen) commit suicide rather than fall into the hands of the 
victorious Cyrus the Persian (George Siegmann); in the French story, a young 
couple, he Catholic and she Protestant, are unable to escape the massacre.

Intolerance is a monument to Griffith’s talent for screenwriting, 
directing actors, designing shots, and editing—a one-of-a-kind 
masterpiece on a scope and scale never equaled. Meant to persuade, this 
film exerted more influence on the Soviet revolutionary cinema of Sergei 
Eisenstein and others than on Griffith’s American contemporaries.  RBP

Future director Tod Browning 
co-wrote and acted in the film, and 

was Griffth’s assistant director.

U.S. (Triangle & Wark) 163m Silent BW 
Producer D.W. Griffith  Screenplay Tod 

Browning, D.W. Griffith  Photography G.W. 
Bitzer, Karl Brown  Music Joseph Carl Breil, 

Carl Davis, D.W. Griffith  Cast Spottiswoode 
Aitken, Mary Alden, Frank Bennett, Barney 

Bernard, Monte Blue, Lucille Browne, Tod 
Browning, William H. Brown, Edmund Burns, 

William E. Cassidy, Elmer Clifton, Miriam 
Cooper, Jack Cosgrave, Josephine Crowell, 

Dore Davidson, Sam De Grasse, Edward 
Dillon, Pearl Elmore, Lillian Gish, Ruth 

Handforth, Robert Harron, Joseph Henabery, 
Chandler House, Lloyd Ingraham, W.E. 

Lawrence, Ralph Lewis, Vera Lewis, Elmo 
Lincoln, Walter Long, Mrs. Arthur Mackley, 

Tully Marshall, Mae Marsh, Marguerite Marsh, 
John P. McCarthy, A.W. McClure, Seena 

Owen, Alfred Paget, Eugene Pallette, Georgia 
Pearce, Billy Quirk, Wallace Reid, Allan Sears, 

George Siegmann, Maxfield Stanley, Carl 
Stockdale, Madame Sul-Te-Wan, Constance 

Talmadge, F.A. Turner, W.S. Van Dyke, 
Guenther von Ritzau, Erich von Stroheim, 

George Walsh, Eleanor Washington,  
Margery Wilson, Tom Wilson

28

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Das Kabinett des Doktor Caligari   
The Cabinet of Dr. Caligari  Robert Wiene, 1919
The Cabinet of Dr. Caligari is the keystone of a strain of bizarre, fantastical 
cinema that flourished in Germany in the 1920s and was linked, somewhat 
spuriously, with the Expressionist art movement. If much of the 
development of the movies in the medium’s first two decades was 
directed toward the Lumière-style “window on the world,” with fictional 
or documentary stories presented in an emotionally stirring manner 
designed to make audiences forget they were watching a film, Caligari 
returns to the mode of Georges Méliès by presenting magical, theatrical 
effects that exaggerate or caricature reality. Officials perch on ridiculously 
high stools, shadows are painted on walls and faces, and unrealistic 
backdrops and performances are stylized to the point of hysteria.

Writers Carl Mayer and Hans Janowitz conceived the film as taking 
place in its own out-of-joint world, and director Robert Wiene and set 
designers Hermann Warm, Walter Roehrig, and Walter Reimann put a twist 
on every scene and even intertitle to insist on this. Controversially, Fritz 
Lang—at an early stage attached as director—suggested that Caligari’s 
radical style would be too much for audiences to take without “explanation.” 
Lang devised a frame story in which hero Francis (Friedrich Feher) 
recounts the story—of sinister mesmerist charlatan Dr. Caligari (Werner 
Krauss), his zombielike somnambulist slave Cesare (Conrad Veidt), and a 
series of murders in the rickety small town of Holstenwall—and is finally 
revealed to be an asylum inmate who, in The Wizard of Oz (1939) style, has 
imagined a narrative that incorporates various people in his daily life. 
This undercuts the antiauthoritarian tone of the film as Dr. Caligari, in the 
main story an asylum director who has become demented, is revealed as 
a decent man out to help the hero. However, the asylum set in the frame 
story is the same “unreal” one seen in the flashback, making the whole film 
and not just Francis’s bracketed story somehow unreliable. Indeed, by 
revealing its expressionist vision to be that of a madman, the film could 
even appeal to conservatives who deemed all modernist art as demented.

Wiene, less innovative than most of his collaborators, makes little use of 
cinematic technique, with the exception of the flashback-within-a-
flashback as Krauss is driven mad by superimposed instructions that he 
“must become Caligari.” The film relies on theatrical devices, the camera 
fixed center stage as the sets are displayed and the actors (especially 
Veidt) providing any movement or impact. Lang’s input served to make 
the movie a strange species of amphibian: It plays as an art movie to the 
high-class crowds who appreciate its innovations, but it’s also a horror 
movie with a gimmick. With its sideshow ambience, hypnotic mad 
scientist villain, and leotard-clad, heroine-abducting monster, The 
Cabinet of Dr. Caligari is a major early entry in the horror genre, introducing 
images, themes, and characters that became fundamental to the likes of 
Tod Browning’s Dracula and James Whale’s Frankenstein (both 1931).  KN

31

“Wiene was prepared to 
treat costume like décor, 

and he used nearly 
impasto makeup to 

suggest ghostly spirit.”
David Thomson, critic, 2008

The sets for the movie were  
made out of paper, with the 

shadows painted on them.

Germany (Decla-Bioscop) 71m Silent BW 
(tinted) Producer Rudolf Meinert, Erich 

Pommer  Screenplay Hans Janowitz, Carl 
Mayer  Photography Willy Hameister   

Music Alfredo Antonini, Giuseppe Becce, 
Timothy Brock, Richard Marriott, Peter 

Schirmann, Rainer Viertlböck  Cast Werner 
Krauss, Conrad Veidt, Friedrich Feher, Lil 

Dagover, Hans Heinrich von Twardowski, 
Rudolf Lettinger, Rudolf Klein-Rogge

1919

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The Birth of a Nation and Intolerance are, rightly, Griffith’s most renowned 
films, remembered for their remarkable manipulations of story and 
editing. But another of his films, 1919’s Broken Blossoms, has always 
stood out as among his very best, and it is surely his most beautiful.

Along with William Beaudine’s glorious Mary Pickford vehicle 
Sparrows, Broken Blossoms exemplifies what was known in Hollywood 
as the “soft style.” This was the ultimate in glamour photography: 
Cinematographers used every available device—powder makeup, 
specialized lighting instruments, oil smeared on the lens, even immense 
sheets of diaphanous gauze hanging from the studio ceiling—to soften, 
highlight, and otherwise accentuate the beauty of their stars. In Broken 
Blossoms, the face of the immortal Lillian Gish literally glows with a lovely, 
unearthly luminescence, outshining all other elements on the screen.

The beauty of Broken Blossoms must be experienced, for it is truly 
stunning. Gish and her costar, the excellent Richard Barthelmess, glide 
hauntedly through a London landscape defined by fog, eerie alleyway 
lights, and arcane, “Orientalist” sets. The film’s simple story of forbidden 
love is complemented perfectly by the gorgeous, mysterious production 
design, created by Joseph Stringer. No other film looks like Broken Blossoms.

The collaboration between Griffith and Gish is one of American 
cinema’s most fruitful: the two also worked together on Intolerance, The 
Birth of a Nation, Orphans of the Storm, and Way Down East, in addition 
to dozens of shorts. Surely this director–actor collaboration ranks with 
Scorsese–De Niro, Kurosawa–Mifune, and Leone–Eastwood; indeed, it is 
the standard by which all others should be judged. Griffith finds a perfect 
balance between the story’s mundanity and the production’s seedy 
lavishness (much of the film takes place in opium dens and dockside 
dives). It is the tension between the everyday and the extraordinary that 
drives on Broken Blossoms, securing its place in film history.  EdeS 

Broken Blossoms  D.W. Griffith, 1919

32

Broken Blossoms was the first movie 
release from United Artists, of which 

Griffith was a founder.

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19

“Her beauty so  
long hidden shines  

out like a poem.”
Intertitle

U.S. (D.W. Griffith) 90m Silent BW  
(tinted screen)  Producer D.W. Griffith  

Screenplay  Thomas Burke, D.W. Griffith  
Photography G.W. Bitzer  Music D.W. Griffith  

Cast Lillian Gish, Richard Barthelmess, 
Donald Crisp, Arthur Howard, Edward  

Peil Sr., George Beranger, Norman Selby



Within Our Gates  Oscar Micheaux, 1920
Successful author, publisher, homesteader, and filmmaker Oscar Micheaux 
is widely considered the father of African American cinema; only his 
second effort, Within Our Gates is one of forty films Micheaux wrote, 
directed, and independently produced between 1919 and 1948. Besides 
its gripping narrative and artistic merits, Within Our Gates has immense 
historical value as the earliest surviving feature by an African American 
director. Powerful, controversial, and still haunting in its depiction of the 
atrocities committed by white Americans against blacks during this era, 
the film remains, in the words of one critic, “a powerful and enlightening 
cultural document [that] is no less relevant today than it was in 1920.”

Within Our Gates follows Sylvia Landry (Evelyn Preer), a Southern black 
teacher who travels north in an effort to raise money for her school. But this 
is only one of several stories that Micheaux weaves together in his gripping 
look at the physical, psychological, and economic repression of African 
Americans. The film was repeatedly edited by the censors, who found the 
rape and lynching scenes too provocative after the 1919 Chicago race riots. 
Lost for seventy years, Within Our Gates was rediscovered at the Filmoteca 
Española in Madrid and restored soon after.  SJS

U.S. (Micheaux) 79m Silent BW   
Producer Oscar Micheaux   

Screenplay Oscar Micheaux, Gene DeAnna  
Music Philip Carli  Cast Evelyn Preer, Flo 

Clements, James D. Ruffin, Jack Chenault, 
William Smith, Charles D. Lucas, Bernice 
Ladd, Mrs. Evelyn, William Stark, Mattie 

Edwards, Ralph Johnson, E.G. Tatum, Grant 
Edwards, Grant Gorman, Leigh Whipper

The last of D.W. Griffith’s sweeping historical melodramas, Orphans of the 
Storm tells the story of two young girls caught in the turmoil of the 
French Revolution. Lillian and Dorothy Gish are Henriette and Louise 
Girard, two babies who become “sisters” when Henriette’s impoverished 
father, thinking of abandoning his daughter in a church, finds Louise 
and, moved by pity, brings both girls home to raise. Unfortunately, they 
are left orphaned at an early age when their parents die of the plague. 
Louise is left blind by the disease, and so the girls make their way to Paris 
in search of a cure. There they are separated. Henriette, kidnapped by 
the henchmen of an evil aristocrat, is befriended by a handsome 
nobleman, Vaudrey (Joseph Schildkraut). Louise is rescued by a kind 
young man after she falls into the River Seine but, brought to his house, 
she is put to work by the man’s cruel brother. Adventures follow, 
including imprisonment in the Bastille, being condemned to death 
during the Reign of Terror, and being saved from the guillotine by the 
politician Danton (Monte Blue), whose speech advocating the end of 
such bloodshed is one of the film’s most impassioned moments.

Although Orphans of the Storm is based on a play that had been 
successful in the preceding decade, Griffith wrote the script during 
shooting. Despite the resulting complications, the film is a masterpiece 
of beautiful staging and acting, with the Gish sisters giving what are 
perhaps the finest performances of their careers.  RBP

U.S. (D.W. Griffith) 150m Silent BW   
Producer D.W. Griffith  Screenplay D.W. 

Griffith, from the play The Two Orphans by 
Eugène Cormon and Adolphe d’Ennery   
Photography Paul H. Allen, G.W. Bitzer, 

Hendrik Sartov  Music Louis F. Gottschalk, 
William F. Peters  Cast Lillian Gish, Dorothy 

Gish, Joseph Schildkraut, Frank Losee, 
Katherine Emmet, Morgan Wallace, Lucille 

La Verne, Sheldon Lewis, Frank Puglia, 
Creighton Hale, Leslie King, Monte Blue, 

Sidney Herbert, Lee Kohlmar, Marcia Harris

1921

33

Orphans of the Storm  D.W. Griffith, 1921



The Phantom Carriage not only cemented the fame of director-
screenwriter-actor Victor Sjöström and Swedish silent cinema, but also 
had a well-documented, artistic influence on many great directors and 
producers. The best-known element of the film is the representation of the 
spiritual world as a tormented limbo between heaven and earth. The scene 
in which the protagonist—the hateful and self-destructive alcoholic 
David Holm (Sjöström)—wakes up at the chime of midnight on New 
Year’s Eve only to stare at his own corpse, knowing that he is condemned 
to hell, is one of the most quoted scenes in cinema history.

Made in a simple but time-consuming and meticulously staged 
series of double exposures, the filmmaker, his photographer, and a lab 
manager created a three-dimensional illusion of a ghostly world that 
went beyond anything previously seen at the cinema. More important, 
perhaps, was the film’s complex but readily accessible narration via a 
series of flashbacks—and even flashbacks within flashbacks—that 
elevated this gritty tale of poverty and degradation to poetic excellence.

Looking back at Sjöström’s career, The Phantom Carriage is a 
theological and philosophical extension of the social themes introduced 
in his controversial breakthrough Ingeborg Holm (1913). Both films 
depict the step-by-step destruction of human dignity in a cold and 
heartless society, driving its victims into brutality and insanity. The 
connection is stressed by the presence of Hilda Borgström, unforgettable 
as Ingeborg Holm and now in the role of a tortured wife—another 
desperate Mrs. Holm. She is yet again playing a compassionate but poor 
mother on her way to suicide or a life in the mental asylum.

The religious naïveté at the heart of Selma Lagerlöf’s faithfully adapted 
novel might draw occasional laughter from a secular audience some 
eighty years later, but the subdued, “realist” acting and the dark fate of 
the main characters—which almost comes to its logical conclusion, save 
for a melodramatic finale—never fails to impress.  MT

Körkarlen  Victor Sjöström, 1921 
The Phantom Carriage

As part of his research for the film, 
Sjöström disguised himself and spent 

time in the slums of Stockholm.

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21

“I was deeply shaken 
by that film . . . I was 

struck by its enormous 
cinematographic power.”

Ingmar Bergman, 1981

Sweden (Svensk AB) 93m Silent BW  
Producer Charles Magnusson   

Screenplay Victor Sjöström, from novel by 
Selma Lagerlöf  Photography Julius Jaenzon  

Cast Victor Sjöström, Hilda Borgström,  
Tore Svennberg, Astrid Holm, Concordia 

Selander, Lisa Lundholm, Tor Weijden,  
Einar Axelsson, Olof Ås, Nils Ahrén,  

Simon Lindstrand, Nils Elffors,  
Algot Gunnarsson, Hildur Lithman,  

John Ekman

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Germaine Dulac’s celebrated film is one of the earliest examples of both 
feminist and experimental cinema. The plot depicts the life of a bored 
housewife trapped in a bourgeois marriage. The most captivating aspect 
of The Smiling Madame Beudet, however, is composed of elaborate 
dream sequences in which the eponymous housewife (Germaine 
Dermoz) fantasizes a life outside her monotonous existence. Using radical 
special effects and editing techniques, Dulac incorporates early avant-
garde aesthetics to offset the vivid feminine power of Madame Beudet’s 
imaginary life against the dullness of the one she shares with her 
husband (Alexandre Arquillière). When the complex visual elaboration of 
her potential liberation through fantasy—the only thing that can put a 
smile on her face—is cut short by the appearance of her husband in her 
daydreams, she is left with only one possible solution: kill him.

Dulac not only addresses the oppressive alienation of women within 
patriarchy but, more importantly, uses the medium of film to offer viewers 
a radical and subjective female perspective. This led to her picture’s 
inclusion in the first Festival of Women’s Films in New York in 1972.  CO

La souriante Madame Beudet  Germaine Dulac, 1922

35

France (Colisée) 54m Silent BW   
Screenplay Denys Amiel, André Obey  

Photography Maurice Forster, Paul Parguel  
Cast Alexandre Arquillière, Germaine 
Dermoz, Jean d’Yd, Madeleine Guitty 

A major commercial success in Germany in 1922, Dr. Mabuse was intended 
not merely as flamboyant thriller but as pointed editorial, using the figure 
of the master-of-disguise supercriminal to embody the real evils of its era.

The subtitles of each of the film’s two parts, harping on about “our 
time,” underline the point made obvious in the opening act, in which 
Mabuse’s gang steals a Swiss–Dutch trade agreement—not to make use 
of the secret information, but to create a momentary stock market panic 
that allows Mabuse (Rudolf Klein-Rogge), in disguise as a cartoon plutocrat 
with top hat and fur coat, to make a fast fortune. He also employs a 
band of blind men as forgers, contributing to the feeling that German 
audiences at the time had that money was worthless.

The film’s eponymous villain shuffles photographs as if they were a 
deck of cards, selecting his identity for the day from various disguises, 
but it is nearly two hours before his “real” name is confirmed. In Part II, 
he appears as a one-armed stage illusionist and finally loses his grip on 
the fragile core of his identity to become a ranting madman, tormented 
by the hollow-cheeked specters of those he has killed and, in a moment 
that still startles, by the creaking-to-life of vast, grotesque statues and 
bits of machinery in his final lair. Director Fritz Lang, and others, would 
return to Mabuse, still embodying the ills of the age—notably in the 
early talkie Das Testament des Dr. Mabuse (1933) and the 1961 high-tech 
surveillance melodrama The Thousand Eyes of Dr. Mabuse.  KN

Dr. Mabuse, der Spieler  Fritz Lang, 1922 
Dr. Mabuse, Parts I and II

Germany (Uco-Film, Ullstein,  
Universum) 95m (part 1), 100m (part 2), 

Silent BW  Producer Erich Pommer  
Screenplay Norbert Jacques, Fritz Lang, 

Thea von Harbou  Photography Carl 
Hoffmann  Music Konrad Elfers  Cast Rudolf 
Klein-Rogge, Alfred Abel, Aud Egede Nissen, 
Gertrude Welcker, Bernhard Goetzke, Robert 

Forster-Larrinaga, Paul Richterll, Hans 
Adalbert Schlettow, Georg John, Grete 

Berger, Julius Falkenstein, Lydia Potechina, 
Anita Berber, Paul Biensfeldt, Karl Platen

1922



Nanook of the North  Robert J. Flaherty, 1922
The history of “documentary” filmmaking—an approach generally thought 
to involve a filmmaker’s recording of an unmediated reality—begins 
really with the invention of the cinema itself, but for better or worse the 
nickname “father of the documentary” has generally been bestowed on 
Robert J. Flaherty. Raised near the U.S.–Canadian border, Flaherty loved 
exploring the far-off wilderness from an early age, and after his studies 
went to work as a mineral prospector in Canada’s Far North. Before one of 
his trips, someone suggested he bring along a movie camera; over the 
next few years, Flaherty would film hours of material of both the land and 
its inhabitants, which in 1916 he began showing in private screenings in 
Toronto. The response was enthusiastic, but just as he was about to ship 
his footage to the United States, he dropped a cigarette ash and his entire 
negative—30,000 feet—burst into flames. Flaherty took years to raise 
enough money to go back north and shoot again; when he finally 
succeeded (thanks to Revillon Frères, a French furrier), he decided to 
focus his efforts on filming one Nanook, a celebrated Inuit hunter. Based 
on his memory of the best of what he had shot before, Flaherty fashioned 
the events to be included in the new film, including things Nanook 
commonly did, some things he never did, and some things he used to do 
but hadn’t done in a while. The result was the deeply influential, but 
endlessly debated, Nanook of the North.

A series of vignettes that detail the life of Nanook and his family over 
a few weeks, Flaherty’s film is a kind of romantic ode to human courage 
and fortitude in the face of an overwhelming and essentially hostile 
Nature. Despite Nanook getting pride of place in the title, many audiences 
are left with the memory of the arbitrary fury of the arctic landscape. 
Indeed, the film received a powerful (if tragic) publicity boost when it was 
revealed that Nanook and his family had indeed perished in a raging 
snowstorm not long after the film was completed, giving Nanook of the 
North’s extraordinary and already powerful final sequence—in which the 
family looks for shelter from a storm—a terrible poignancy.

Many contemporary film students are critical of the picture because 
so much of it seems staged for the camera—several times you can 
practically hear Flaherty barking out directions to Nanook and the 
others—but the film’s many defenders over the years, such as André 
Bazin, wisely pointed out that Flaherty’s most remarkable achievement 
here is the way he seemed to capture the texture of their daily lives. The 
details of the walrus hunt, such as whether or when a gun was used, 
seem less important than Flaherty’s decision to simply follow in long 
shot Nanook’s slow crawl toward his prey; if Nanook’s beaming face as 
he warms his son’s hands is part of an act, then he was simply one of the 
great screen performers in history. Call it what you will—documentary, 
fiction, or some hybrid—Nanook of the North remains one of the few 
films that completely deserves its description as a classic.  RP

36

“Beside this film the usual 
photoplay, the so-called 

‘dramatic’ work of the 
screen, becomes as thin 

and blank as the celluloid 
on which it is printed.”

The New York Times, 1922

The film was rejected by 
five distributors before Pathé  

finally agreed to take it on.

U.S. (Les Frères Revillon, Pathé) 79m  
Silent BW  Producer Robert J. Flaherty  

Screenplay Robert J. Flaherty   
Photography Robert J. Flaherty   

Music Stanley Silverman  Cast Nanook,  
Nyla, Cunayou, Allee, Allegoo, Berry  
Kroeger (narrator—1939 re-release) 

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Nosferatu, eine Symphonie des Grauens  
Nosferatu, a Symphony of Terror  F.W. Murnau, 1922
Bram Stoker’s Dracula inspired one of the most impressive of all silent 
features. The source material and the medium seem almost eerily meant 
for each other. Stoker’s novel, largely written in the form of a series of 
letters, is light on traditional dialogue and heavy on description, perfect 
for the primarily visual storytelling of silent films. It is fitting that a  
story of the eternal conflict between light and darkness should be 
matched to a format consisting almost entirely of the interplay of light 
and darkness.

Director F.W. Murnau had already established himself as a star of  
the German Expressionist movement when he decided to adapt the 
Stoker novel, renamed Nosferatu after legal threats from Stoker’s estate. 
In fact, the finished film barely evaded a court order that all copies  
be destroyed, but in the end little of Stoker’s novel was ultimately 
altered, save the names of the characters, and indeed the success of 
Nosferatu led to dozens of subsequent (and mostly officially sanctioned) 
Dracula adaptations.

Yet Nosferatu, even so many years later, stands apart from most 
Dracula films. One key difference is the striking presence of star Max 
Schreck, whose surname translates to “fear.” Schreck plays the 
eponymous vampire with an almost savage simplicity. His rodent-like, 
sinister creature of the night is little different from the rats at his 
command, lurching instinctively toward any sight of blood with barely 
disguised lust.

This explains the terror of Hutter (Gustav von Wangenheim), who  
has traveled to the isolated castle of Count Orlok (Schreck) high in  
the Carpathian Mountains to help the strange man settle some legal 
matters. The mere mention of Orlok silences the townsfolk with fear, and 
Hutter’s suspicions deepen when he discovers that the stagecoach 
taking him to the castle has no driver. Orlok himself offers little solace. 
He keeps odd hours and leaves Hutter locked in a tower. Fearing for  
his life—and specifically the bloodlust of his captor—he escapes and 
returns to Bremen, Germany. But Orlok follows, setting his sights not on 
Hutter but on his innocent wife, Ellen (Greta Schröder): “Your wife has a 
beautiful neck,” comments Orlok to Hutter. Just as her connection with 
Hutter helps rescue him from Orlok’s clutches, Ellen discovers that it is 
also up to her to lure the demonic creature to his (permanent) demise: 
to be vaporized by the rays of the morning sun.

With Nosferatu, Murnau created some of cinema’s most lasting and 
haunting imagery: Count Orlok creeping through his castle, striking 
chilling shadows while he’s stalking Hutter; Orlok rising stiffly from his 
coffin; the Count, caught in a beam of sunlight, cringing in terror before 
fading from view. He also introduced several vampire myths that fill not 
just other Dracula films but permeate popular culture as well.  JKl

Germany (Jofa-Atelier Berlin-Johannisthal, 
Prana-Film) 94m Silent BW  Director F.W. 

Murnau  Screenplay Henrik Galeen   
Photography Günther Krampf, Fritz Arno 

Wagner  Music James Bernard (restored 
version)  Cast Max Schreck, Alexander 

Granach, Gustav von Wangenheim, Greta 
Schröder, Georg H. Schnell, Ruth Landshoff, 

John Gottowt, Gustav Botz, Max Nemetz, 
Wolfgang Heinz, Guido Herzfeld, Albert 

Venohr, Hardy von Francois

1922

39

The 2000 film Shadow of the Vampire 
is set around the making of Nosferatu, 
and depicts Schreck as a real vampire.

i

1



40

19
23

Häxan  Benjamin Christensen, 1923
Pioneering Danish filmmaker Benjamin Christensen’s notorious 1922 
“documentary” Häxan is a bizarre silent-film oddity that explores the 
nature of witchcraft and diabolism from ancient Persia through then-
modern times using various cinematic approaches, from still images 
to models to vivid, dramatic reenactments. It is a hard film to pin 
down, and it defies any boundaries of genre, especially those of the 
documentary film, which in the early 1920s was still amorphous and 
undefined. Part earnest academic exercise in correlating ancient fears 
with misunderstandings about mental illness and part salacious horror 
movie, Häxan is a truly unique work that still holds the power to 
unnerve, even in today’s jaded era.

To visualize his subject matter, Christensen fills the frames with every 
frightening image he can conjure out of the historical records, often 
freely blending fact and fantasy. We see a haggard old witch pull a 
severed, decomposing hand out of a bundle of sticks. There are shocking 
moments in which we witness a woman give birth to two enormous 
demons, see a witches’ sabbath, and endure tortures by inquisition 
judges. We watch an endless parade of demons of all shapes and sizes, 
some of whom look more or less human, whereas others are almost 
fully animal—pigs, twisted birds, cats, and the like.

Christensen was certainly a cinematic visionary, and he had a keen 
notion of the powerful effects of mise-en-scène. Although Häxan is 
often cited as a key forerunner of such modern devil-possession films as 
The Exorcist (1973), it also brings to mind Tobe Hooper’s effective use of 
props and background detail in The Texas Chain Saw Massacre (1974) to 
create an enveloping atmosphere of potential violence. Häxan is a film 
that needs to be viewed more than once to gain a full appreciation of 
the set design and decoration—the eerie use of props, claustrophobic 
sets, and chiaroscuro lighting to set the tone. It is no surprise that the 
Surrealists were so fond of the film and that its life was extended in the 
late 1960s, when it was reissued as a midnight movie with narration by 
none other than William S. Burroughs.  JKe 

“We no longer burn  
our old and poor.  

But do they not often 
suffer bitterly?”

Intertitle

Benjamin Christensen himself  
plays the part of the Devil  

in the movie.

Denmark / Sweden (Aljosha, Svensk)  
87m Silent BW  Screenplay Benjamin 

Christensen  Photography Johan 
Ankerstjerne  Music Launy Grøndahl (1922), 

Emil Reesen (1941 version)  Cast Elisabeth 
Christensen, Astrid Holm, Karen Winther, 

Maren Pedersen, Ella La Cour, Emmy 
Schønfeld, Kate Fabian, Oscar Stribolt, Clara 

Pontoppidan, Else Vermehren, Alice 
O’Fredericks, Johannes Andersen, Elith Pio, 

Aage Hertel, Ib Schønberg 

i



Greed is Stroheim’s most famous film, but Foolish Wives is his masterpiece. 
Like Greed, it was heavily reedited, but what remains (especially after a 
major 1972 restoration) is a more accomplished work. He himself stars as 
the unscrupulous Count Karamzin, a Monte Carlo-based pseudoaristocrat 
who sets out to seduce the neglected wife of an American diplomat.

This witty, ruthlessly objective film confirms its director as the cinema’s 
first great ironist. Karamzin is skewered with sardonic relish—brazenly 
insincere, thoroughly indiscriminate in his taste in women, and, when 
the chips are down, contemptibly cowardly—but he and his decadent 
colleagues are so much more entertaining than the virtuous American 
hubby and his commonplace spouse. The film’s tone of cool, lively 
detachment is enhanced by its exhaustive elaboration of the world 
around the characters, articulating space through visual strategies (such 
as layered depth, peripheral motions, and multiple setups) that make us 
intensely aware of the entire 360-degree field of each scene. Stroheim 
stacks the deck by placing his dull, flat Americans in dull, flat spaces; 
otherwise, there’s hardly a shot that doesn’t dazzle the eye with rich, 
shimmering interplay of detail, lighting, gesture, and movement.  MR

Foolish Wives  Erich von Stroheim, 1923

41

1923

U.S. (Universal) 85m Silent BW   
Screenplay Marian Ainslee, Walter Anthony, 
Erich von Stroheim  Photography William H. 

Daniels, Ben F. Reynolds  Music Sigmund 
Romberg  Cast Rudolph Christians, Miss 

DuPont, Maude George, Mae Busch, Erich 
von Stroheim, Dale Fuller, Al Edmundsen, 

Cesare Gravina, Malvina Polo, Louis K. Webb, 
Mrs. Kent, C.J. Allen, Edward Reinach

Arguably as great a film as the better-known The General (1927), Our 
Hospitality—Buster Keaton’s masterly satire of traditional Southern 
manners—kicks off with a beautifully staged dramatic prologue that 
establishes the absurdly murderous parameters of the age-old feud 
between two families. By the time the main story takes over, Buster’s 
Willie McKay is a twenty-something innocent, raised in New York but 
returning (thanks to a wondrously funny odyssey involving a primitive 
train) to his familial town, where his courtship of a girl met en route—
the daughter, as it happens, of the clan still sworn to spilling his blood—
places him in deadly peril, even though Southern hospitality dictates 
his enemies treat him properly as long as he’s in their home.

Much of the humor thereafter derives from a darkly ironic situation 
whereby Willie determines to remain a guest of his would-be killers 
while they smilingly try to ensure his departure. Keaton’s wit relies not 
on individual gags but on a firm grasp of character, predicament, 
period, place, and camera framing (see how he keeps the camera 
moving after he’s fallen off the ludicrous bicycle